Flashcards in Unit 1b: Creating the Nazi Government, 1933-34 Deck (29):
What was Gleichschaltung?
The process of coordinating government by taking control of all that threatened it: the trade unions, the press, other parties and internal threats.
Why was the term 'Gleichschaltung' favoured?
It had no political connotations and so it was the ideal word to use to express the Nazis' repressive measures in a way which didn't make them seem repressive.
Associated with German high-tech industries, meaning 'coordination' or 'bringing' into line. Accordingly, the Nazis attempts to coordinate government were expressed as something efficient and organised, and this was desirable after a negative experience of Weimar democracy, of political fragmentation which allowed for instability in the form of faction failure and riots.
How did Hitler bring an end to federalism?
1925 - he introduces the Gauleiter position, responsible for arranging local NSDAP activities.
1933 - All Gauleiters are allowed allocated positions within local government, and are extremely influential as directly accountable to Hitler.
1934 - Hitler replaces Landstag (regional gov.) with regional governors (usually ex. Gauleiter). Significant also as it helped people acclimatise to individual dictatorship over a parliamentarian structure.
How did Hitler take control of the civil service?
7th April 1933 - Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service - removed all that were racially unpure or whose political loyalty could be questioned.
Significant also as evidence of Hitler asserting his authority over Hindenburg. He had written to Hitler on 4th April 1933 asking him to at least exclude Jewish WWI veterans yet he refuses.
When did the KPD collapse?
Mid-July 1933, though they were ineffective in campaigning after mid-March.
When did the SPD collapse?
Mid-July 1933, as Hitler outlined that they were hostile to the state and people.
When did the DNVP collapse?
June 1933. Rejected after 23rd March 1933 as redundant to Nazi constitutional standing. Encouraged by SA repression/intimidation and negotiation with senior Nazi politicians.
When did the DDP and DVP collapse?
7th March 1933 as they gained just 2% of votes between them and were being attacked by the SA.
When did the ZP collapse?
On 6th July 1933 as a sign of national unity after Hitler promised to uphold Catholic values and protect traditional rights.
Over what time period was the one-party state established?
What was the ideology of Ernst Röhm and why was it significant?
He despised Hitler's willingness to cooperate with the traditional aristocracy as he felt that the 'Front Generation' ought to constitute the elite, especially as it was aristocrats that had seemingly lost Germany the war in 1918.
It was speculated he wanted a 'second revolution' that would establish an FG elite and set out the SA to be at least on equal par with the Reichswehr: establishing a people's army with the spirit of 1914 renewed.
Significant because he was the 2nd most powerful Nazi in the early 1930s.
Who, specifically, opposed Röhm's proposals and why?
Werner von Blomberg, as he was head of the Reichswehr, and this would limit his power, giving it unrightfully to the leader of an ill-disciplined, thuggish and, unorderly institution.
HIMMLER - Wanted to allow the SS that same position. Though a sub-division of the SA originally, when formed in 1923, the SS was a new generation of people who had been kids during WWI and represented the educated middle classes. It was also more organised and disciplined than the SA, composed of FG and WC/lower MC men.
GOERING - Wanted to Nazify the German Armed Forces and make himself its head.
Why did circumstances get so critical for the army in June 1933?
Hindenburg was dying of lung cancer.
The army was soon to lose its most powerful ally, that protected it against Nazi radicalism. They needed to establish some protection that was secure in place for when he died.
Why was the power of Hitler limited on 30th January 1933?
DEMOCRATIC ASPECTS OF REGIME - Articles
INTERNAL PRESSURES - More radical members of the NSDAP, e.g. Röhm and his threat of 'second revolution'.
SUBSERVIENCE - Reliant upon support of Reichstag, army and Hindenburg.
This was Hitler's seizure to power through violent repression and political intimidation.
What was the Legal Revolution?
The methods that Hitler took to change the constitution between January-July 1933. It could be argued to be nothing more than mere Nazi propaganda.
How did Hitler retain an image of legitimacy?
The semantics of "Third Reich" - linked him to Bismarckian glory and the prestige of the Holy Roman Empire and Second Reich. Associated with that shared goal of German greatness.
Retained elections after 23rd March 1933 - every four years. Reichstag stay for legitimacy and to convene on special occasions and hear Hitler's speeches.
Why was Hermann Goering important?
He secured support for the regime; the aristocracy were otherwise sceptical about Nazism as Hitler was a mere lower-middle class corporal and Röhm was a WC thug. Goering was an aristocrat, the son of Heinrich Enrst Goering (important in 19th century German expansionism in Africa) and had served as the last commander of the legendary Richtofen Fighting Squadron.
Was Minister of the Interior in Prussia (57%!) so could move 50,000 SA to auxiliary police; making their actions against Prussian Jews and leftists seem more justified.
What were the consequences of the Reichstag Fire?
27th Feb 1933 - Marinus Van der Lubbe
28th Feb 1933 - Law of the Reich President for the Protection of the People and State
CLAUSE 1 - Restricted freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, right to be informed of the reason for one's arrest within 1 day and the right to the home as an inviolable place of asylum.
CLAUSE 2 - Hitler takes control of local government; significant as they were often the source of anti-Nazi governments.
What did Goebbels suggest with an aim to make people in favour of the Reichstag Fire Decree?
He advocated that communist revolution was being planned and that there was the looming threat of further acts of terrorism. Also argued it was a temporary measure.
Why did the SPD and the KPD not oppose Nazism from the start?
SPD - saw that the NSDAP had legally come to power so it'd be wrong to oppose it.
KPD - thought that the Nazi government wasn't to last long anyway so there was no point.
How did the Nazis build support for the election of 7th March 1933 and why?
Needed 1/2 support to set laws and 2/3 support to change the constitution.
- Goering convinces 20 industrialists to offer RM3 million of funding. Improves campaign and posts soldiers to create a perception of threat.
- Extensive use of the media, like the weekly Völkischer Beobachter from February 1933, popularised by Hugenberg's media empire.
- Didn't ban KPD and SPD so as to not concentrate all leftist support on one party. Key as collectively attained 30.56% support on the day.
- Killed 69 political opponents and had others imprisoned within 'wild' concentration camps.
What was the result of the 7th March 1933 election for the NSDAP?
Gained 43.9% of votes. Had 50% needed to change laws when supported by 7.9% DNVP votes. Yet lacked the 2/3 and lacked autonomy.
How did Hitler seek to please Hindenburg?
Hindenburg was concerned by the use of SA violence during the electoral campaign to Hitler ceased violence on 10th March 1933.
Day of Potsdam (21st March 1933) - Celebrated the old regime and the new regime combining harmoniously. Hitler was very chivalrous towards Hindenburg. Wore a frock coat (for bourgeoisie) whilst Hindenburg sported traditional Reichswehr attire. Lay down a reef to commemorate lost Front Generation.
How did Hitler secure support for his Enabling Act?
23rd March 1933 - would need 2/3 of votes to alter the constitution and pass laws without the interference of the Reichstag. Managed to gain 444 to 94 votes as he promised ZP he'd uphold the rights of the RC Church whilst he prevented 82 KPD and 26 SPD from entering. BROUGHT AN END TO DEMOCRACY.
How did Hitler try to compromise with Röhm, 1933-early 1934?
December 1933 - offered a position in the German cabinet.
Hitler refuses to respond to further tensions until June 1934 when critical.
What was the Marburger Rese of 17th June 1934 and why was it significant?
It was a speech given by FvP at the University of Marburg on 17th June 1934. It criticised the SA and Nazi government as a whole, and proposed the establishment of a new government headed by him.
The Night of the Long Knives: events/who died
30th June - 2nd July 1934. 85 deaths and 1,000 arrests.
Goering and Himmler lead the killings of 80 on a specially compiled 'death list' at the Hanselbaur Hotel in Bad Wiesse as an SA conference was taking place.
Key SA killed and new leader is more loyal Viktor Lutze.
Killed a number of senior conservatives: von Schleicher and major general Kurt von Bredow.
Intimidated FvP, shot his 2 closest advisors and broke into offices but didn't kill him.
12 Reichstag deputies.
Gregor Strasser as sympathetic to Röhm's 2nd Rev and linked to von Schleicher before Hitler came to power. An internal enemy.