Flashcards in Unit 1B: Resesrch Terms Deck (67):

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## Applied Vs. Basic research

### Basic research consists of pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base while applied research consists of scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. Overconfidence: tendency to think we know more than we actually do.

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## Hindsight bias

### The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it(I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon). Hindsight bias and overconfidence(overestimates our intuition) can cause us to believe that incorrect things are correct

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## Scientific attitude

### Being skeptical but not cynical, open but not gullible. One must have curiosity which allows us to explore and understand the world. Skepticism allows us to to scrutinize claims. Humility: may have to reject your own thoughts put together with scientific principles- making sense from nonsense.

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## Critical thinking

### Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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## Validity

### If a test is performed enough times and supports the results it was hoping to support, it is valid. Good research consists of validity and reliability. Does it measure what the researcher was supposed to measure?

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## Reliability

### If a test is performed many times and the results are the same each time, it is reliable. Must contain repeated results and the research must be replicable.

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## Scientific method

### A self-correcting process for asking questions and observing natures answer. A process to find and observe phenomena.

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## Theory

### Aims to explain some sort of phenomenon. Organizes a wide array of observations: encourages a testable hypothesis.

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## Hypothesis

### A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Gives direction to research and specifies in advance what results will support the theory.

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## Null hypothesis

### The opposite of what the researcher expects it to be. The hypothesis the researcher tries to disprove.

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## Operational definitions

### A statement of the procedures(operations) uses to define research variables. This is important for replication.

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## Replication

### Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extend to other participants and circumstances.

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## Case study

### When psychologists study one individual in great depth in the hope of revealing a universal truth.

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## Survey

### Study's many individuals but in less depth.

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## False consensus effect

### The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

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## Naturalistic observations

### Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. If a subject notices, they'll act differently (no controls). Must be in a subjects natural environment. It does not explain behavior, it describes behavior.

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## Field experiment

### Experiments that are done in the everyday environment of the participants. The experimenter still manipulates the independent variable, but in a real life setting. This type of experiment has more controls and possible interference.

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## Subjects

### A person who is the focus of scientific or medical attention or experiment. Must come from a population.

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## Sample

### A target group for an experiment; comes from a population.

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## Population

### All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.

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## Random sampling

### A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. It is a proper representation of the population (large samples). The results are more accurate.

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## Stratified sampling

### A sampling method used when population is composed of several subgroups that may differ in the behavior correlation studies. It ensures that the sample represents the population in a particular area.

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## Correlation coefficient

### A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

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## Positive correlation

### A relationship between two variables in which both variables move in tandem. A positive correlation exists when one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases and vice versa.

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## Negative correlation

### A relationship in which one variable increases as the other decreases and vice versa. They have an inverse relationship. It predicts the absence of the other.

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## Scatterplots

### A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.

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## Line of best fit

### Shows whether the two variables in a scatterplot are correlated or not, or how they relate. A correlation does not prove causation.

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## Illusory correlation

### The perception of a relationship where none exists.

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## Experimental studies

### Predicts how one variable will be influenced by the change of another. Cause and effect.

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## Laboratory experiment.

### An experiment where artificial environment and tightly controlled variables are key to success in this type. This May influence the subjects to act differently.

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## Experimenter bias

### Bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment. They treat the groups differently in order to influence the results.

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## Independent variable

### The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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## Dependent variable

### The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable may change in response to manipulations of the independent variate.

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## Confounding variable

### An extraneous variable whose presence affects the variables being studied so that the results you get don't reflect the actual relationship between the variables under investigation. There is no control. It effects the relationship between the dependent and independent variable.

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## Assignment and random assignment

### Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. Subject is assigned to a certain group.

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## Group matching

### When researchers attempt to categorize the subjects and ensure that the control group has members similar to those in the experimental group. When characteristics if the control and experimental groups are similar.

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## Experimental condition

### The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version if the independent variable. People who are exposed to the treatment.

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## Control condition

### The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. People who have no exposure to treatment and are used to compare to the experimental condition.

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## Hawthorne effect

### A term referring to the tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. Subjects modify their behavior because they know they're being tested and this influences the results.

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## "Blind"/subject bias

### Subject doesn't know what they're getting.

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## Placebo

### A fake treatment. A harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect.

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## Placebo effect

### Experimental results caused by expectations only; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active ingredient.

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## Double-blind procedure

### An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant(blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo, commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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## Counterbalancing

### A type of experimental design in which all possible orders of presenting the variables are included. Do treatment in multiple orders. Can have a lack of a control group.

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## Longitudinal study

### Where researchers conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time, sometimes lasting many years.

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## Cross-sectional study

### One type of observational study that involves data collection from a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time.

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## Measures of central tendency

### Attempt to find the center of a distribution.

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## Mode

### The most frequently occurring score in a distribution.

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## Binodal

### Having or involving two modes.

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## Mean

### The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

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## Median

### The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

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## Extreme scores

### An a-typical score that distorts the mean of the distribution.

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## Measures of variation

### Used to describe the diversity of the distribution.

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## Range

### The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

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## Standard deviation

### A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. Relates the average distance of any score from the mean.

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## Z-score

### A distance of score from the mean in units of standard deviation.

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## Normal distribution

### A function that represents the distribution of many random variables as a symmetric bell-shaped graph.

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## Positively skewed

### A distribution where the mean is usually greater than the median. More low scores than high scores.

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## Negatively skewed

### Where the mean is usually less than the median. More high scores than low scores.

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## Variance

### Measure of a degree of the dispersions of a set of scores.

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## Statistical significance

### A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

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## P-value

### Measure of confidence. Varies from 0-1. Less than 5% or lower to be statistically significant. More than 5% suggests that it occurred by chance.

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## IRB

### Institutional review board. They inspect research before and after results are obtained.

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## Type I error

### When a researcher mistakenly rejects the null hypothesis.

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## Type II error

### When researcher accepts the null hypothesis when it actually fails.

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## APA ethical guidelines

### Animal research: must be clear scientific purpose to test animal-has to answer specific scientific questions. Must acquire animal subjects legally. Most design am experimental procedure that employs the least amount of suffering for the animal.

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