Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (103):
An individual nerve cell
The main body of a neuron or other cell.
Neuron fibers tbt receive incoming information.
Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron
Branching fibers at the end if axons that allow information to pass between neurons.
A fatty later coating some axons.
The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.
The microscopic space between two neurons.
The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.
Te nerve impulse achieved when a neuron reaches negative 50 millivolts.
Tiny openings through axon membrane that open like gates during action potential.
A drop in electrical charge below the resting potential which occurs right after each nerve impulse which makes the nerve less willing to fire.
Any chemical released by a neuron thy alters activity in other neurons.
Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitter or hormones.
Brain chemicals that affect more subtle brain activities.
Opiate-like brain chemicals.
Chemicals released by the pituitary gland.
A bundle of nerve fibers.
Central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord.
A part of the CNS that connects to the brain and goes down the spine.
Peripheral Nervous System
All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
Somatic nervous system
Te system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs.
A part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body.
Major nerves that carry sensory and motor information in and out of the spinal cord.
Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord.
A nerve cell that serves as a link between two other nerve cells
A nerve cell that carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands.
Surgical removal of tissue.
A detailed investigation of a single person, especially one suffering from some injury or disease.
Removal of tissue within the rain by use if an electrode.
Any device use to electrically stimulate nerve tissue or to record it's activity.
Electrical stimulation of the Brain (ESB)
Direct electrical stimulation and activation of tissue.
An electrode small enough to record the activity of a single neuron.
Electro encephalograph (EEG)
A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.
Computed tomography scan; a computer-enhanced x-ray image of the brain or body.
Magnetic resonance imaging; a computer enhanced three- dimensional representation of the brain or body based on the body's response to a magnetic field.
A functional MRI that records brain activity.
Positron emission tomography; a computer-generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption in the brain.
The two large hemispheres that cover the upper part if the brain.
The outer layer of the cerebrum.
Am increase in the relative size of the cerebral cortex.
The right and left halves of the cerebrum.
The bundle of fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres.
Cutting of the corpus callousness.
Portion of the cerebral cortex where vision registers in the brain. Found at the back of the head.
Area of the brain where bodily sensations register. Located just above the occipital lobe.
A receiving area for bodily sensations located on the parietal lobes.
The posterior portion if the brain including the cerebellum and brainstem that controls vital life functions and involuntary actions
A part of the autonomic system that quiets the body and helps keep vital functions at moderate levels.
Areas that include the sites where hearing registers in the brain.
A brain area associated with movement, the sense if smell, and higher mental functions.
All areas of the cerebral cortex that are not primarily sensory it motor in function.
A speech disturbance resulting from brain damage.
A language area related to grammar and pronunciation.
An area related to language comprehension. Damage to this area causes problems with the meaning of words.
An inability to grasp the meaning of stimuli, such as words, objects, or pictures.
An inability to recognize familiar faces.
All brain structures below the cerebral cortex.
Another name for the brainstem.
The lowest portion of the brain, including the cerebellum, medulla, pins, and reticular formation.
The structure that connects the brain with the spinal cord. Controls vital life functions such as breathing, heart rate, and swallowing.
An area in the brainstem that acts as a bridge between the medulla and other structures.
A brain structure that lied at the base if the brain and is a part of the hindbrain. Controls posture and coordination.
A network of fibers and cell bodies that lie inside the medulla and brainstem an are associated with attention, alertness, and some reflexes.
Reticular activating system
A part of the reticular formation that activates the cerebral cortex. Bombards the cortex with stimulation to keep it alert and active.
The area of the brain consisting I structures linking the for rain an brainstem.
The highest brain areas including the hypothalamus, thalamus, corpus Collosum, and cerebrum. Includes structures responsible for higher human behavior, thought, and sensation.
A brain structure that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. Acts as a final switching station for sensory messages on their way to the cortex.
A small area if the brain that regulates emotional behaviors and motives.
The "master gland" whose hormones influence and control other endocrine glands.
The hypothalamus, parts of the thalamus, the amygdala, the hippocampus and other structures compose it. It has a major ole in producing emotion and motivated behaviors.
A part if the limbic system associated with fear responses.
A part of the limbic system associated with storing memories. Produces memory-like or dream-like experiences and can help us navigate through space.
Glands whose secretions pass directly into the bloodstream or lymph system.
Any of the organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the blood.
Any of the glands if the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
A gland that secretes externally through a duct.
A glandular secretion released by the endocrine system that affects bodily functions or behavior
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that promotes bodily growth.
Shortness and smallness caused by too little growth hormone.
Excessive bodily growth caused by too much growth hormone.
A gland in the brain thy releases melatonin and helps regulate body rhythms and sleep cycles.
Hormone released by the pineal gland that occurs in response to daily cycles of light and dark and helps with sleep cycles.
Hormone produced by the thyroid glands that regulates metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidization in cells.
The organic processes that are necessary for life
Caused by an under active thyroid gland leading to a slower metabolism, sluggishness, inactivity, sleepiness, slowness, and obesity
Caused by an over active thyroid gland leading to faster metabolism, thinness, tenseness, excitability, and nervousness.
Endocrine gland that arouses the body, regulates salt balance, adjusts the body to stress, and affects sexual functioning.
The inner cortex of the adrenal gland that is a source of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The outer layer if the adrenal gland that produces hormones that affect salt intake, reactions to stress, and sexual development.
A steroid hormone produced or synthesized by the adrenal cortex that regulate salt balance, help the body adjust to stress, and act as secondary source of sex hormone.
The primary sex glands which release sex hormones.
The main male sex gland that release testosterone which influences make sexual functions.
The main female sex gland that secretes estrogen which influences female sexual functions
Male sex hormone secreted mainly by the testes and is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics.
Female sex organ responsible fr the development of female sexual characteristics
A steroid hormone produced in the ovary and responsible for inducing labor and starting milk production.
The brain's capacity to change it's structure and functions allowing for some recovery after brain injuries.
Enlargement if the arms, hands, feet, and face because of excess growth hormone late in the human growth period.
An adrenal hormone associated with fear and also known as adrenaline and arouses the body.
A hormone that is associated with anger and arouses the body.
A nerve cell thy carries information from the senses toward the central nervous system. Gives the CNS information about the surrounding environment in order to allow the body to have appropriate reaction.