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Neuron

An individual nerve cell

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Soma

The main body of a neuron or other cell.

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Dendrite

Neuron fibers tbt receive incoming information.

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Axon

Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron

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Axon terminals

Branching fibers at the end if axons that allow information to pass between neurons.

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Myelin sheath

A fatty later coating some axons.

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Resting potential

The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.

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Synapse

The microscopic space between two neurons.

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Threshold

The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.

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Action potential

Te nerve impulse achieved when a neuron reaches negative 50 millivolts.

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Ion channels

Tiny openings through axon membrane that open like gates during action potential.

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Negative after-potential

A drop in electrical charge below the resting potential which occurs right after each nerve impulse which makes the nerve less willing to fire.

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Neurotransmitter

Any chemical released by a neuron thy alters activity in other neurons.

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Receptor sites

Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitter or hormones.

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Neuropeptides

Brain chemicals that affect more subtle brain activities.

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Enkephalins

Opiate-like brain chemicals.

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Edorphins

Chemicals released by the pituitary gland.

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Nerve

A bundle of nerve fibers.

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Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord.

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Spinal cord

A part of the CNS that connects to the brain and goes down the spine.

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Peripheral Nervous System

All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.

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Somatic nervous system

Te system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs.

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Sympathetic Branch

A part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body.

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Spinal Nerves

Major nerves that carry sensory and motor information in and out of the spinal cord.

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Cranial Nerves

Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord.

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Connector Neuron

A nerve cell that serves as a link between two other nerve cells

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Motor neuron

A nerve cell that carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands.

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Ablation

Surgical removal of tissue.

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Clinical study

A detailed investigation of a single person, especially one suffering from some injury or disease.

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Deep lesioning

Removal of tissue within the rain by use if an electrode.

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Electrodes

Any device use to electrically stimulate nerve tissue or to record it's activity.

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Electrical stimulation of the Brain (ESB)

Direct electrical stimulation and activation of tissue.

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Micro-electrode.

An electrode small enough to record the activity of a single neuron.

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Electro encephalograph (EEG)

A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.

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CT scan

Computed tomography scan; a computer-enhanced x-ray image of the brain or body.

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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging; a computer enhanced three- dimensional representation of the brain or body based on the body's response to a magnetic field.

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fMRI

A functional MRI that records brain activity.

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PET scan

Positron emission tomography; a computer-generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption in the brain.

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Cerebrum

The two large hemispheres that cover the upper part if the brain.

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Cerebral cortex

The outer layer of the cerebrum.

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Corticalization

Am increase in the relative size of the cerebral cortex.

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Cerebral Hemisphere

The right and left halves of the cerebrum.

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Corpus Collosum

The bundle of fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres.

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Split-brain Operation

Cutting of the corpus callousness.

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Occipital Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex where vision registers in the brain. Found at the back of the head.

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Parietal Lobes

Area of the brain where bodily sensations register. Located just above the occipital lobe.

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Somatosensory area

A receiving area for bodily sensations located on the parietal lobes.

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Hindbrain

The posterior portion if the brain including the cerebellum and brainstem that controls vital life functions and involuntary actions

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Parasympathetic Branch

A part of the autonomic system that quiets the body and helps keep vital functions at moderate levels.

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Temporal Lobes

Areas that include the sites where hearing registers in the brain.

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Frontal lobe

A brain area associated with movement, the sense if smell, and higher mental functions.

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Association cortex

All areas of the cerebral cortex that are not primarily sensory it motor in function.

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Aphasia

A speech disturbance resulting from brain damage.

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Brock's area

A language area related to grammar and pronunciation.

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Wernicke's Area

An area related to language comprehension. Damage to this area causes problems with the meaning of words.

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Agnosia

An inability to grasp the meaning of stimuli, such as words, objects, or pictures.

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Facial agnosia

An inability to recognize familiar faces.

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Subcortex

All brain structures below the cerebral cortex.

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Hindbrain

Another name for the brainstem.

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Brainstem

The lowest portion of the brain, including the cerebellum, medulla, pins, and reticular formation.

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Medulla

The structure that connects the brain with the spinal cord. Controls vital life functions such as breathing, heart rate, and swallowing.

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Pons

An area in the brainstem that acts as a bridge between the medulla and other structures.

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Cerebellum

A brain structure that lied at the base if the brain and is a part of the hindbrain. Controls posture and coordination.

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Reticular formation

A network of fibers and cell bodies that lie inside the medulla and brainstem an are associated with attention, alertness, and some reflexes.

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Reticular activating system

A part of the reticular formation that activates the cerebral cortex. Bombards the cortex with stimulation to keep it alert and active.

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Midbrain

The area of the brain consisting I structures linking the for rain an brainstem.

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Forebrain

The highest brain areas including the hypothalamus, thalamus, corpus Collosum, and cerebrum. Includes structures responsible for higher human behavior, thought, and sensation.

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Thalamus

A brain structure that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. Acts as a final switching station for sensory messages on their way to the cortex.

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Hypothalamus

A small area if the brain that regulates emotional behaviors and motives.

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Pituitary gland

The "master gland" whose hormones influence and control other endocrine glands.

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Lambic system

The hypothalamus, parts of the thalamus, the amygdala, the hippocampus and other structures compose it. It has a major ole in producing emotion and motivated behaviors.

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Amygdala

A part if the limbic system associated with fear responses.

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Hippocampus

A part of the limbic system associated with storing memories. Produces memory-like or dream-like experiences and can help us navigate through space.

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Endocrine system

Glands whose secretions pass directly into the bloodstream or lymph system.

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Gland

Any of the organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the blood.

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Endocrine gland

Any of the glands if the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.

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Exocrine gland

A gland that secretes externally through a duct.

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Hormone

A glandular secretion released by the endocrine system that affects bodily functions or behavior

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Growth hormone

A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that promotes bodily growth.

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Hypopituitary dwarfism.

Shortness and smallness caused by too little growth hormone.

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Giantism

Excessive bodily growth caused by too much growth hormone.

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Pineal gland

A gland in the brain thy releases melatonin and helps regulate body rhythms and sleep cycles.

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Melatonin

Hormone released by the pineal gland that occurs in response to daily cycles of light and dark and helps with sleep cycles.

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Thyroxin

Hormone produced by the thyroid glands that regulates metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidization in cells.

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Metabolism

The organic processes that are necessary for life

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Hypothyroidism

Caused by an under active thyroid gland leading to a slower metabolism, sluggishness, inactivity, sleepiness, slowness, and obesity

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Hyperthyroidism

Caused by an over active thyroid gland leading to faster metabolism, thinness, tenseness, excitability, and nervousness.

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Adrenal glands

Endocrine gland that arouses the body, regulates salt balance, adjusts the body to stress, and affects sexual functioning.

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Adrenal medulla

The inner cortex of the adrenal gland that is a source of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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Adrenal cortex

The outer layer if the adrenal gland that produces hormones that affect salt intake, reactions to stress, and sexual development.

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Corticoids

A steroid hormone produced or synthesized by the adrenal cortex that regulate salt balance, help the body adjust to stress, and act as secondary source of sex hormone.

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Gonads

The primary sex glands which release sex hormones.

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Testes

The main male sex gland that release testosterone which influences make sexual functions.

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Ovaries

The main female sex gland that secretes estrogen which influences female sexual functions

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Testosterone

Male sex hormone secreted mainly by the testes and is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics.

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Estrogen

Female sex organ responsible fr the development of female sexual characteristics

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Progesterone

A steroid hormone produced in the ovary and responsible for inducing labor and starting milk production.

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Plasticity

The brain's capacity to change it's structure and functions allowing for some recovery after brain injuries.

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Acromegaly

Enlargement if the arms, hands, feet, and face because of excess growth hormone late in the human growth period.

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Epinephrine

An adrenal hormone associated with fear and also known as adrenaline and arouses the body.

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Norepinephrine

A hormone that is associated with anger and arouses the body.

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Sensory neuron

A nerve cell thy carries information from the senses toward the central nervous system. Gives the CNS information about the surrounding environment in order to allow the body to have appropriate reaction.

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Reflex arc

The simplest behavior in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response that doesn't require guidance from the brain in order to occur.