Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (126):
A string-instrument technique where two parts are produced by playing on two string simultaneously.
True or false? Tchaikovsky wrote only lyrical pieces, and did not incorporate any virtuosity in his music.
False, his first piano concerto and his violin concerto were deemed unplayable by designated premiere performers due to their virtuosity.
Tchaikovsky was known for his ___ in his symphonies, operas, and ballets.
Who presented a historic solo piano recital in London in 1840?
Franz Liszt. Up until that point, concerts involved many performers and ensembles.
With whom did Liszt have an affair with during his Concert Pianist era?
Marie d'Agoult from 1835 to 1839. She left her husband to be with him, and they had three children together. Relationship ended bitterly.
Who did Liszt celebrate with La Campanella?
French for "study." Solo instrumental work intended to develop technical facility. Focuses on one or more specific technical challenges.
Who did Mendelssohn study piano theory with?
Carl Friedrich Zelter, director of the Berlin Singakademie.
Who did Liszt first take piano lessons with?
His father. Displayed talent at an early age, composing by the age of eight; concert debut at nine.
What are Romantic qualities in Tchaikovsky's music?
Lyrical melodies, heightened emotionalism, and rich orchestration create an expressive quality that speaks directly to the heart.
Smetana achieved ___ unity in Ma Vlast, where themes from an earlier symphonic poem are recalled in a later one.
What is Vltava inspired by?
Moldau river in Bohemia.
What did Liszt focus on composing?
Orchestral music: symphonic poems, program symphony, piano concertos.
Who was appointed director of music in Dusseldorf and held the position for three years?
What event was very traumatic to Felix Mendelssohn?
The death of his sister Fanny (Hensel).
Who taught theory at the Moscow Conservatory and published two harmony books?
Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E Minor, op. 64, First Movement
Composed in 1844 for the celebrated violinist Ferdinand David. Impassioned opening solo violin melody immediately captures the listeners' attention. Dramatic passion, poetic lyricism, virtuosity. Three movements. Performed by solo violin and orchestra.
Who was appointed Royal Kappemeister in Berlin but continued to conduct in Leipzig?
Who worked as a conductor and music director in Weimar?
Who became conductor of Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra, and held his post until 1846?
Who became the president of the music academy in Budapest?
Mendelssohn revolutionizes music and maintains little Classical influences. True or false?
False, Mendelssohn's music captures the spirit of Romanticism, yet maintains respect for the Classical tradition.
What is the program to Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture?
Friar Laurence, Romeo, and Juliet are each identified by their own themes. Recurring feud theme evokes conflict between Montagues and Capulets. Elsewhere the music suggests the love shared by the star-crossed lovers, as well s their tragic deaths. Does not try to delineate specific plot developments, but still maintains essential emotions.
Who came up with the master class format?
Who was refused entry to the Paris Conservatoire because he was a foreigner?
Liszt was an advocate of "Music of the Future," a movement that supported the fusion of music and drama. what was this called?
A sustained note over which harmonies change.
Where was Liszt born?
Raiding, Hungary just outside Vienna, Austria.
Which composer frequently travelled to European countries, and met celebrated German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe at age twelve and Franz Liszt and Luigi Cherubini at age sixteen?
Who organized the historic revival of Bach's St. Matthew Passion?
Who conducted the inaugural concerts at Carnegie Hall in NYC?
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C sharp Minor by Liszt
Projects Liszt's fiery temperament and proud nationalism. Popularized by many famous performers, even cartoon characters.
Who did Robert Schumann call the "Mozart of the 19th Century?"
With whom did Liszt have an affair in his Weimar Years?
Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein. She was a married aristocrat he met in Kiev while on tour. Their home in Weimar was a major centre for artists, musicians, and writers.
True or false? Liszt's harmonic language was often chromatic and progressive? Give examples.
True. He favoured mediant relationships over the circle of fifths, used augmented triads and other altered chords; late works such as Nudges gris foreshadow Impressionism.
What are some Romantic features in Mendelssohn's music?
Programmatic elements (descriptive titles, natural imagery, literary references), memorable melodies, unexpected modulations, virtuosic writing.
What kind of upbringing did Mendelssohn have?
Privileged. Obtained the finest education, travels throughout Europe, and opportunities to perform with outstanding professional musicians in his family's home.
How did Liszt change the culture of piano performance?
Played from memory, sat with profile to audience, referred to concerts as "recitals."
Formal structure often used in first movement of sonata cycle. Consists of Exposition (statement of two or more contrasting themes), Development (departure), and Recapitulation (return). Also known as sonata-allegro form.
Who contributed to the development of the formal structure of the Romantic concerto?
What is the source theme material of La Campanella?
Violin Concerto No. 2 in B minor (Nicolo Paganini).
What are new Romantic idioms developed by Mendelssohn?
Concert overture, incidental music, short lyric piano pieces.
True or false? Tchaikovsky became famous and popular after his death.
False, he is among the composers whose music enjoyed immense popularity with audiences.
Who was influenced by Fredric Chopin?
Who, upon retirement, developed the "master class" format as a teacher and welcomed any capable student, occasionally offering instruction free of charge?
Who married Cecile Jeanrenaud in 1837, and had five children?
Where was Mendelssohn born?
When was Liszt's Weimar Years?
What extra-musical associations can be made from Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture?
Themes from the sonata form can be connected with the characters they represent.
A solo passage herd in a concerto, aria, or any large orchestral work. Often of a virtuosic nature, suggests an improvised style. 19th century cadenzas were usually written out by the composer.
What were the four instrumental genres of the Romantic era?
Concerto, concert etude, symphonic poem, and concert overture.
Elements of Hungarian folk and gypsy music is evident in Liszt's...
Hungarian Rhapsodies, Hungarian Fantasy.
Describe Smetana's melodies:
Who founded the Leipzig Conservatory?
Father to Felix Mendelssohn, was a merchant banker.
What are hallmarks of Mendelssohn's style?
Youthful exuberance, lyricism, and imaginative use of orchestral colour.
Describe Smetana's harmonic language:
Included chromaticism, frequent use of modal harmony.
Was Tchaikovsky interested in program music?
Which composer was known to employ thematic transformation?
Who did Smetana dedicate his Six Characteristic Pieces, op. 1 to, and why?
Liszt, because he was also a virtuoso pianist and arranged for their publication.
True or false? Many of Tchaikovsky's works exhibited an underlying pathos.
True. Evokes feelings of pity or sadness.
Significant trend in 19th-century music. Instrumental music with extra-musical associations (literary, poetic, visual). Descriptive title identifies the connection. Some works include a written text or "program" provided by the composer.
Who did Mendelssohn take piano lessons with?
Marie Bigot in Paris.
Grandfather to Felix Mendelssohn, was a respected rabbi and philosopher.
Who studied law and aesthetics with renowned German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel at the University of Berlin?
A multi-movement work for soloist and orchestra that showcases the virtuosity of soloists.
Who sparked Smetana's interest in program music?
Liszt and his symphonic poems.
True or false? Handel's choral techniques influenced Mendelssohn's works.
Birth and Death Years for Mendelssohn
What is the English translation of La Campanella?
The Little Bell.
True or false? Liszt stayed away from programmatic music, instead relying on the formulaic approach of Classical composers.
False, he cultivated programmatic writing.
What is the genre of Vltava by Smetana?
Symphonic poem (tone poem).
True or false? Liszt adhered closely to past forms, and did not deviate much from them.
False, Liszt displayed freedom and innovation in terms of form. He wrote single movement works with complex internal structures.
A single-movement orchestral work with literary or pictorial associations. Usually in sonata form. Independent concert work; not connected to an opera or ballet.
Who was torn between the life as a concert pianist and his desire to enter the priesthood, but chose the musical career on his mother's advice?
Which composers level of fame compared to that of modern rock stars, with many female admirers and notorious affairs?
What is La Campanella known for?
Its unprecedented level of virtuosity.
Who toured Paris, England, Ireland, Switzerland, and other French cities while still a teenager?
What is the genre of La Campanella?
How did Smetana use folk songs?
Quoted them occasionally, but most often wrote original melodies that resemble folk songs, as in his successful opera, The Bartered Bride.
Who would be compared to like-minded modernists such as Berlioz and Wagner?
Who travelled frequently to the British Isles, Austria, and Italy?
How did Tchaikovsky experiment with structure in his symphonies? Give an example.
The final movement of his Pathetique symphony is a slow movement.
What techniques did Mendelssohn inherit from Mozart and the Viennese Classical style?
Preference for balanced symmetrical phrases and clarity of texture. Application of traditional forms, clear harmonic function, sonata form (with repeated exposition), moderately sized orchestra (~40 players), and use of orchestral colour.
How was Liszt connected to Weimar since 1842?
He was the Grand Ducal Director of Music Extraordinary. Moved there in 1848 to focus on composing and conducting.
How did Liszt make a living in his Concert Pianist era?
From concert appearances and teaching; performed in locations from Ireland to Gibraltar, Moscow to Constantinople (Istanbul).
In what era was Liszt called the greatest pianist of his era, demonstrating unparalleled technical prowess, sight reading skills, and personal charisma?
Concert Pianist era.
Who was part of Liszt's artistic circle in his Concert Pianist era?
Hector Berlioz, Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, Fredric Chopin, Nicolo Paganini, Heinrich Heine, Victor Hugo, Alfred Musset, and Alphonse Lamartine.
Mendelssohn was encouraged as a student to emulate the proven models of...
Bach, Handel, Haydn, and Mozart.
Which composer was also a gifted painter and linguist'?
Besides the Czech Republic, where would Smetana also be associated with?
Sweden, as hr spent five years there where he concertized, directed a choral society, and opened a vocal academy.
Describe Tchaikovsky's style.
Western European symphonic tradition combined with a strong Russian element.
What are Smetana's famous six symphonic poems called?
Whose family moved to Vienna so he could study piano with Carl Czerny and composition with Antonio Salieri?
What is Liszt most known for?
Great musical versatility. Virtuoso pianist, and also a respected composer and teacher. Also conducted and was a music director.
Symphonic Poem (Tone Poem)
One of the most popular forms of orchestral program music. Single movement work, generally in free form, with literary or pictorial associations. Invented by Franz Liszt.
Whose father was a clerk in the court of Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy played cello in Josef Haydn's orchestra in Eisenstadt?
Franz Liszt (his father's name was Adam).
What Romantic idioms did Liszt develop?
Concert etude, lyric piano piece.
Where did Liszt die?
Les Preludes by Liszt
His most famous symphonic poem. Use of thematic transformations. Initial C-B-E three-note motive.
For Tchaikovsky, what did Russian folk music, dances, fables, and literature serve as inspiration for? (What genres).
Vocal music and operas.
Who entered into semi-retirement and pursued religious study, and in 1865 attained minor orders in the Catholic Church?
Why did Liszt relocate to Rome?
Because Princess Carolyne moved there. However, they never married, and broke up in 1864.
Who exhibited Bohemian nationalism and patriotic fervour, and how?
Smetana, by choosing nationalistic subject matter for orchestral music and operas.
What is the form of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E Minor, op. 64, First Movement?
Birth and Death Years of Liszt
How did Liszt's musical works display his personal life's duality?
Virtuosic, but also inspired by religious beliefs and many titles had religious titles and symbolism.
What is the genre of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture?
Concert overture, often referred to as an overture-fantasy.
What techniques did Mendelssohn borrow from Beethoven?
Structural innovations such as linking movements.
What is Smetana's greatest achievement?
Founder of the Czech National School during the 19th century.
Who helped Berlioz and Wagner launch their careers, and conducted the first performance of Wagner's Lohengrin?
What is the form of La Campanella?
Sectional form with variations (ABA'B'A''B''A'''Coda).
Whose son, daughter, and mother died within 7 years of each other?
When was Liszt's Late Years: Rome, Weimar, Budapest?
A basic theme that is repeated throughout a work in different guises. A theme may be changed rhythmically, melodically, or harmonically. Unlike a "variation," the transformed theme takes on a new identity in a new context.
What are some characteristic features of Mendelssohn's works?
Vivid orchestration, rapid leggiero string passages, chordal texture in the winds, light scherzando writing.
Who was mesmerized by the playing of Nicolo Paganini?
Who contributed to many charities, namely relief efforts after the Danube River floods in Hungary in 1838?
What was the program that accompanied Vltava by Smetana?
Published to clarify imagery for the listener. Description of the birth of the river formed by two springs, one warm and one cold, which merge together. The river journeys through the first and encounters a hunt, a wedding, nymphs in the moonlight, reflections of fortresses and castles that hint at past glory and splendour. Finally. the st. John Rapids lead to the Vysehrad castle before the river vanishes into the distance.
Nationalism in Music
Important element of 10th-century musical style. Patriotism expressed through music. Influence of folk song and dance, myths and legends, landscapes, historical events.
What modern piano techniques did Liszt develop?
Use of unprecedented thunderous octaves tremolos, cascading passages, and rapid repeated notes.
True or false? Mendelssohn studied Bach's works carefully, and fell in love with counterpoint and part-writing.
Give an example of how career activities influenced Liszt's compositional output as a composer.
When he was touring pianist, he wrote and performed many piano transcriptions of symphonies, opera arias, Lieder.
What are Liszt's three main periods?
1. Concert Pianist (1827-1847). 2. Weimar Years (1848-1861). 3. Late Years: Rome, Weimar, Budapest (1861-1886).
When was Liszt's Concert Pianist era?