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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (91):
1

Middle Lamella

The area between plant cell walls that “glues” the cells together

2

Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis

3

Microfilaments

Part of the cytoskeleton that is made up of actin

4

Nucleoid

The region where DNA is found in prokaryotic cells

5

Scanning Electron Microscope

A type of electron microscope that looks at the external structures of the cell

6

Lysosomes

Digestive centers of the cell; sacs of enzymes

7

Integrins

Proteins that go all the way through the cell membrane; they communicate between the ECM and the cytoskeleton

8

Nucleus

Control center on eukaryotic cells

9

Cellular Respiration

Process that breaks down chemical energy (food) into ATP. This occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.

10

Cis

Receiving side of the golgi apparatus

11

Chromosomes

The form that DNA is in the right before cell division. These are found in the nucleus.

12

Prokaryotic

The earliest and simplest type of cell; lacks membrane-bound organelles and a nucleus

13

Extracellular Matrix

The structure that is on the outside of animal cells; it helps with structure and is made up of mostly glycoproteins

14

Dynein Arms

Motor molecules that help move the microtubules in cilia and flagella

15

Desmosomes

Anchoring junctions; these structures hold animal cells together in strong sheets

16

Photosynthesis

Process that turns light energy into chemical energy in autotrophs . It takes place in the chloroplasts

17

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

This organelle makes membranes and also helps to move substances around in the cell

18

Eukaryotic

More highly specialized cells; they have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; plant and animal cells are examples of this

19

Nucleolus

Structure in the nucleus that produces rRNA (which eventually makes ribosomes)

20

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell; cite of cellular respiration

21

Secondary Cell Wall

This is found under the primary cell wall to strengthen it; it is very strong and wood is an example of it

22

Cytoskeleton

Structural support in animal cells

23

Contractile Vacuole

A structure in animal cells that gets rid of excess water to prevent the cells from bursting in hypotonic solutions

24

Primary Cell Wall

The thin and flexible cell wall that is pliable until the plant stops growing. Once the plant stops growing, it hardens.

25

Cytoplasm

Everything between the nucleus and the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells; made up on cytosol and organelles

26

Transmission Electron Microscope

A type of electron microscope that looks at the internal structures of the cell

27

Chromatin

The form that DNA is in for most of the cell cycle; long thin strands

28

Trans

The shipping side of the golgi apparatus

29

Peroxisomes

Organelles that break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen; this helps cells in the liver detoxify drugs and alcohol

30

Plasmodesmata

Channels through plant cell walls that allow substances to pass from one plant cell to another; similar to gap junctions in animal cells

31

Centrosomes

Microtubules grow from here; there are found near the nucleus in animal cells

32

tonoplast

The membrane surrounding the large central vacuole in plant cells

33

Light Microscope

A simpler type of microscope that uses light to pass through an object rather than electrons

34

Cell Wall

The outer layer of plant cells; help with structural support

35

Tight Junctions

Junctions in animal cells that fuse the cells together and helps prevent leakage of extracellular fluids

36

Central vacuole

The large structure in the middle of plant cells; this is used to store water, proteins, enzymes, wastes, and other miscellaneous substances

37

Microtubules

A part of the cytoskeleton that is made from tubulin; cilia and flagella are made of this

38

Nuclear envelope

The double membrane around the nucleus in eukaryotic cells

39

Cell fractionation

This process used a centrifuge to separate parts of the cell so that their individual functions can be studied

40

Golgi apparatus

This organelle modifies, packages, and secretes materials from the cell

41

Cellulose

Primary component of cell walls

42

Gap Junctions

These are channels in animal cells that allow substances to pass through one cell into the next

43

Intermediate Filaments

These are a part of the animal cytoskeleton that are made from a family of proteins called keystone; they are more permanent than other parts of the cytoskeleton

44

Electron Microscopes

Most powerful microscope

45

Basal Bodies

The name for the part of the cell where cilia and flagella are anchored in

46

Chloroplast

Organelle found in autotrophs; location of photosynthesis

47

Endocytosis

The process of using energy to bring something INTO the cell

48

Facilitated Diffusion

Using proteins to aid in diffusion when molecules are moving down their concentration gradients

49

Osmosis

Diffusion if water down its concentration gradient

50

Extracellular Matrix

Structure found in the outside of the animal cell; used for support and recognition

51

Amphipathic

The term for when something has a hydrophobic part and also a hydrophilic part

52

Dayson and Danielli

They came up with the sandwich model for the plasma membrane with the phospholipids on the janis’s and the protein layers of the outside

53

Passive Transport

Transport across the plasma membrane that does NOT require energy

54

Isotonic

A type of solution where the solute concentration on the outside is equal to that on the inside

55

Gated Channels

Electrical or chemical stimulus causes these channels to open or close

56

Pinocytosis

“Cell Drinking”; Bringing small particles into the cell, uses energy

57

Electrogenic pumps

These generate voltage across the membrane

58

Glycoproteins

These are components of the ECM are used for recognition

59

Aquaporins

Channels in the plasma membrane that allow water through

60

Dynamic Equilibrium

The process that occurs when there are equal concentrations of solutes across the membrane but there is still constant movement; there is no net change in concentration on either side

61

Integral Proteins

Proteins that go all the way through the membrane

62

Singer and Nicolson

Came up with the current fluid mosaic model for the plasma membrane

63

Active Transport

Transport that requires energy to move things across the membrane

64

Hypertonic

A type of solution where there is a higher concentration OUTSIDE the cell

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Membrane Potential

Voltage across the membrane

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Cell Mediated Endocytosis

A form of bringing things into the cell where a molecule has to bind with a receptor on the outside of the cell in order to signal the process of bringing it in; this requires energy

67

Co-transport

When something is pumped out of (or into) the cell and then diffuses back in (or out) by attaching to a difference molecule (similar to the idea of "hitching a ride")

68

Hypotonic

A type of solution where there is a higher concentration of solute INSIDE the cell

69

Sodium/Potassium Pump

Most common electrogenic pump in animal cells

70

Exocytosis

Process of moving things OUT of the cell; uses energy

71

Osmoregulation

Adaptations that organisms have to control the water balance in hypotonic or hypertonic solutions

72

Diffusion

Movement of molecules down their concentration gradients; does NOT use energy

73

Cholesterol

A molecule found in the cell membrane that can either make the membrane more rigid (normal temps) or more fluid (lower temps) depending on the temperature of the environment

74

Peripheral

Proteins that are found either on the inside or the outside of the cell membrane; not through the membrane

75

Phagocytosis

"Cell-eating"; the process of bringing larger molecules into the cell; this requires energy

76

Oligosaccharide

Short polysaccharide chains that function as markers in the ECM

77

Cytoplasm

Contains cytosol and organelles

78

Cytosol

Clear substance (mostly water) that organelles are suspended in

79

Free Ribosomes

Not bound to anything; make proteins that are going to be used in the cell

80

Bound Ribosomes

Attached to the ER; make proteins that are going to be exported from the cell

81

Microtubules

Made of tubulin; thick and hollow; used for moving organelles; ex. cilia and flagella; grow from centrosomes

82

Microfilaments

Made of actin; thin and solid; used for amoeboid movement, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming

83

Intermediate Filaments

Made of keratins; more permanent; used for reinforce shape

84

Smooth ER

Makes lipids, detoxifies drugs/alcohol, breaks down carbs

85

Rough ER

Makes membranes and secretory proteins (ribosomes on them)

86

9+2 Arrangement

Ring of 9 pairs on outside plus 2 individual microtubules on the inside; move by mother molecules (dyenin arms)

87

6 Functions of Membrane Proteins

transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, intercellular joining, cell to cell recognition, attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM

88

Forces That Drive Diffusion

Chemical force (ion concentration), electrical force (membrane potential)

89

carboxyl

a functional group that is part of an amino acid; -COOH; acts as an acid

90

monomer

individual molecules that are linked together to make polymers; examples include monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleotides

91

nucleic acids

one of the four main macromolecules whose function is to carry genetic information