Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (52):
what is cell metabolism?
chemical reactions required for the maintenance of life
What is an anabolic pathway?
the build up of molecules
What is a catabolic pathway?
the break down of molecules
What is an alternative pathway?
a route that skips steps in a metabolic reaction which will speed it up
What is the function of protein pores?
allows certain molecules to pass through the membrane with passive transport
What is the function of protein pumps?
carrys molecules across the membrane with active transport
What is induced fit?
the active site is not rigid and can alter its shape to fit a substrate
What is a signal molecule?
activates an enzyme when released
What is an inhibitor?
a substance which decreases the rate of reaction
What is competitive inhibition?
the inhibitor fights with the substrate over which one will get into the active site of the enzyme
What is non competitive inhibition?
the inhibitor will bind to a site on the enzyme which will change the shape of the active site permanently. Therefore no substrates can start a reaction
What is feedback inhibition?
when the end product of a metabolic pathway is too high so it inhibits the reaction
What is a structural gene?
a gene that contains code for making the enzyme
What is an operator gene?
a gene that controls the structural gene
What is a regulator gene?
a gene that sends a repressor molecule to stop the operator gene if the enzyme is not needed
What are the three domains of life?
What is phosphorylation?
where a phosphate is added to a molecule
What is the energy investment stage in glycolysis?
2 ATP is required to phosphorylate an intermediate before any ATP can be produced
What removes hydrogen ions from respiration pathways?
dehydrogenase enzyme. This picks up hydrogen ions and high energy electrons and takes them to the electron transfer chain
What are the substrates for respiration?
glucose: starch and glycogen
sugars: sucrose and maltose
fats and proteins
Where does respiration occur?
citric acid cycle: matrix of the mitochondria
electron transfer chain: membrane of the mitochondria
What happens in the electron transfer chain?
1. hydrogen ions are dropped off by dehydrogenase enzyme
2. hydrogen ions are pumped through protein with energy from electrons
3. the hydrogen ions diffuse back through ATP synthase which turns the enzyme
4. ATP is produced
5. oxygen accepts hydrogen to create water
What is metabolic rate?
the quantity of energy used by the body over a given time
describe a single circulatory system
blood passes through a two chambered heart once eg in fish
describe an incomplete double circulatory system
blood passes through a three chambered heart twice. Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mix together which results in inefficient metabolic processes eg reptiles and amphibians
describe a complete double circulatory system
blood passes through a four chambered heart twice and doesnt mix together eg mammals birds
What adaptions do animals make in high altitudes?
-increase in red blood cells
-increased lung volume
What adaptions do animals make in deep sea marine?
-decreased heart rate
What is maximum oxygen uptake?
the maximum volume of oxygen a body can take up during intense exercise. This can be a measure of how fit a person is
What abiotic factors affect metabolic rate?
What is a conformer?
an animal where it internal enviroment depends on the external enviroment. They have low metabolic costs and a narrow niche eg reptiles
What is a regulator?
their internal enviroment doesnt depend on the external enviroment. They have high metabolic costs and a wide niche eg mammals
What is homeostasis?
the maintenance of a constant internal enviroment with a changing external enviroment
What is thermoregulation?
maintaining a steady internal temperature regardless f the external enviroment
What is negative feedback?
a process that ensures that homeostasis is maintained
What is the hypothalamus?
a part of the brain that controls the temperature of the blood and body
it controls sweat glands, skin arterioles and hair erector muscles
What is an adverse condition?
an enviroment that varies beyond tolerable limits
What is dormancy?
an organism temporarily reducing its metabolic activity to save energy until the enviroment improves
What are the different types of dormancy?
hibernation: a period of long term inactivity to survive adverse conditions
aestivation: allows survival in periods of high temperature or drought
daily torpor: a short period of reduced inactivity
What is migration?
the relocation of members of a species from one enviroment to another to avoid metabolic adversity
What is an extremophile?
an organism that lives in exteme conditions
What are some types of extremophiles?
thermophile: high temperature eg taq polymerase
halophiles: high salinity
acidophiles: acidic conditions
What is complex media?
growth media that contains nutrients in an impure form
What is defined media?
growth media that contains components that are chemically known and are pure
What controls metabolism?
precursors, inducers, inhibitors
What is mutagenesis?
the creation of mutations
What is recombinant DNA technology?
transfer of DNA to other organisms
What is the requirements for recombinant DNA technology?
restriction endonuclease: cuts target sequences and leaves sticky ends in plasmid
restriction site: target sequence
selective marker gene: shows if the microorganism has taken up the altered plasmid
origin of replication: genes that control self replication
ligase: enzyme that seals sticky ends together
What is a safety mechanism?
genes are introduced that prevent the modified organism from surviving outside the lab
What are considerations in manufacturing a new product?
What is a patent?
sole rights to make, use and sell an invention for a limited period of time