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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (52):
1

what is cell metabolism?

chemical reactions required for the maintenance of life

2

What is an anabolic pathway?

the build up of molecules

3

What is a catabolic pathway?

the break down of molecules

4

What is an alternative pathway?

a route that skips steps in a metabolic reaction which will speed it up

5

What is the function of protein pores?

allows certain molecules to pass through the membrane with passive transport

6

What is the function of protein pumps?

carrys molecules across the membrane with active transport

7

What is induced fit?

the active site is not rigid and can alter its shape to fit a substrate

8

What is a signal molecule?

activates an enzyme when released

9

What is an inhibitor?

a substance which decreases the rate of reaction

10

What is competitive inhibition?

the inhibitor fights with the substrate over which one will get into the active site of the enzyme

11

What is non competitive inhibition?

the inhibitor will bind to a site on the enzyme which will change the shape of the active site permanently. Therefore no substrates can start a reaction

12

What is feedback inhibition?

when the end product of a metabolic pathway is too high so it inhibits the reaction

13

What is a structural gene?

a gene that contains code for making the enzyme

14

What is an operator gene?

a gene that controls the structural gene

15

What is a regulator gene?

a gene that sends a repressor molecule to stop the operator gene if the enzyme is not needed

16

What are the three domains of life?

archaea
bacteria
eukaryotes

17

What is phosphorylation?

where a phosphate is added to a molecule

18

What is the energy investment stage in glycolysis?

2 ATP is required to phosphorylate an intermediate before any ATP can be produced

19

What removes hydrogen ions from respiration pathways?

dehydrogenase enzyme. This picks up hydrogen ions and high energy electrons and takes them to the electron transfer chain

20

What are the substrates for respiration?

glucose: starch and glycogen
sugars: sucrose and maltose
fats and proteins

21

Where does respiration occur?

glycolysis: cytoplasm
citric acid cycle: matrix of the mitochondria
electron transfer chain: membrane of the mitochondria

22

What happens in the electron transfer chain?

1. hydrogen ions are dropped off by dehydrogenase enzyme
2. hydrogen ions are pumped through protein with energy from electrons
3. the hydrogen ions diffuse back through ATP synthase which turns the enzyme
4. ATP is produced
5. oxygen accepts hydrogen to create water

23

What is metabolic rate?

the quantity of energy used by the body over a given time

24

describe a single circulatory system

blood passes through a two chambered heart once eg in fish

25

describe an incomplete double circulatory system

blood passes through a three chambered heart twice. Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mix together which results in inefficient metabolic processes eg reptiles and amphibians

26

describe a complete double circulatory system

blood passes through a four chambered heart twice and doesnt mix together eg mammals birds

27

What adaptions do animals make in high altitudes?

-increase in red blood cells
-lowered DPG
-increased lung volume

28

What adaptions do animals make in deep sea marine?

-decreased heart rate
-collapsible lungs

29

What is maximum oxygen uptake?

the maximum volume of oxygen a body can take up during intense exercise. This can be a measure of how fit a person is

30

What abiotic factors affect metabolic rate?

-salinity
-pH
-temperature

31

What is a conformer?

an animal where it internal enviroment depends on the external enviroment. They have low metabolic costs and a narrow niche eg reptiles

32

What is a regulator?

their internal enviroment doesnt depend on the external enviroment. They have high metabolic costs and a wide niche eg mammals

33

What is homeostasis?

the maintenance of a constant internal enviroment with a changing external enviroment

34

What is thermoregulation?

maintaining a steady internal temperature regardless f the external enviroment

35

What is negative feedback?

a process that ensures that homeostasis is maintained

36

What is the hypothalamus?

a part of the brain that controls the temperature of the blood and body

it controls sweat glands, skin arterioles and hair erector muscles

37

What is an adverse condition?

an enviroment that varies beyond tolerable limits

38

What is dormancy?

an organism temporarily reducing its metabolic activity to save energy until the enviroment improves

39

What are the different types of dormancy?

hibernation: a period of long term inactivity to survive adverse conditions

aestivation: allows survival in periods of high temperature or drought

daily torpor: a short period of reduced inactivity

40

What is migration?

the relocation of members of a species from one enviroment to another to avoid metabolic adversity

41

What is an extremophile?

an organism that lives in exteme conditions

42

What are some types of extremophiles?

thermophile: high temperature eg taq polymerase
halophiles: high salinity
acidophiles: acidic conditions

43

What is complex media?

growth media that contains nutrients in an impure form

44

What is defined media?

growth media that contains components that are chemically known and are pure

45

What controls metabolism?

precursors, inducers, inhibitors

46

What is mutagenesis?

the creation of mutations

47

What is recombinant DNA technology?

transfer of DNA to other organisms

48

What is the requirements for recombinant DNA technology?

restriction endonuclease: cuts target sequences and leaves sticky ends in plasmid
restriction site: target sequence
selective marker gene: shows if the microorganism has taken up the altered plasmid
origin of replication: genes that control self replication
ligase: enzyme that seals sticky ends together

49

What is a safety mechanism?

genes are introduced that prevent the modified organism from surviving outside the lab

50

What are considerations in manufacturing a new product?

-expensive
-animal testing
-harmful

51

What is a patent?

sole rights to make, use and sell an invention for a limited period of time

52

What are regulatory requirements of new products?

no threat/danger to the people making it
safe to use by consumers
product is pure and uncontaminated
product matches product description