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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (20):
1

characterize Bacteroides

gram negative, obligate anaerobe, non-endospore, breaks down plant glycans

2

how much of gut microbiome is Bacteroides

25%

3

Firmicutes

gram positive bacteria, includes Listeria, Clostridium, Bacillus, Staphylococcus

4

gut microbiome of obese people

more Firmicutes, less Bacteroidetes

5

Bacteroides fragilis helps establish gut microbiome by

SUS, breaks polysaccharides (plant glycans) into oligosaccharides for other microbes to use

6

aerobic respiration

oxygen is the final electron acceptor

7

anaerobic respiration

non-oxygen, inorganic final electron acceptor (sulfate, nitrate, carbonate ions)

8

fermentors

use organic final electron acceptor; no genes for ETC, CAC enzymes, etc. - cannot use oxygen, may be able to perform anaerobic respiration

9

humans can digest which polysaccharides

starch, lactose, sucrose

10

breast milk contains what and why

complex oligosaccharides - feeds gut microbes of infant to establish microbiome

11

Bacteroides fragilis influences immune system how

the PSA, polysaccharide A capsule, increases CD4+ T cell count

12

PUL

polysaccharide utilization loci genes

13

gut microbiome of Celiac disease

decrease in Firmicutes, increase in Proteobacteria, decrease in Bifidobacterium

14

importance of Bifidobacteria in gut

antiinflammatory, reduces IBS

15

characterize Bifidobacteria

phylum Actinobacteria, gram positive, anaerobic, bacillus

16

metabolic activity o Bifidobacteria

ferments sugar into lactic acid, catabolize oligosaccharides

17

cyclic photophosphorylation

e- cycle through same PS, light is energy source, ion is electron source, second e- donor needed to make NADPH

18

anoxygenic

does not produce oxygen ie does not use water as electron or energy source ie cyclic photophosphorylation

19

non-cyclic photophosphorylation

uses two different photosystems, produces NADPH, uses water

20

oxygenic

produces oxygen ie uses water ie non-cyclic photophosphorylation