Code element 2.0 Behavior Analysts’ Responsibility to Clients is related to our prime directive, which is:
A)Decrease problem behavior; increase task completion
B)Help individuals obtain outcomes and improve their quality of life
C)Represent the practice of ABA with ethics and good work
D)Save the world with behavior analysis
Help individuals obtain outcomes and improve their quality of life
Matt has been asked by an Adult Day Training (ADT) Center to work with Carl, an adult with an intellectual disability. The ADT would like Matt to work with their staff on increasing Carl’s productivity in stuffing envelopes, as the ADT is in danger of losing the contract with the supplying business if they can't obtain a higher yield. As Matt gets to know Carl, it becomes clear that Carl is bored at work, and really wants the job of moving carts of materials around the workshop. What would be best for Matt to do?
A)Call the Agency of Persons with Disabilities and report that the ADT is exploiting individuals with disabilities.
B)Convince Carl that stuffing envelopes is a better job, and that he can increase his income by working faster, and that you can help him become a more productive worker.
C)Write a plan involving a reduction in caloric intake for Carl as an antecedent manipulation to increase the value of food, and provide contingent snacks for stuffing envelopes on a thin VR schedule.
D)Discuss with the ADT that although Carl may earn more money by being more productive, he really wants a different job. Determine whether this ADT is most suited to Carl’s needs.
Discuss with the ADT that although Carl may earn more money by being more productive, he really wants a different job. Determine whether this ADT is most suited to Carl’s needs.
A behavior analyst who is offered to work on a case that is outside of the scope of her training, and thus refers the case out to another behavior analyst, is adhering to which Code element?
A)2.01 Accepting Clients
B)2.04 Third party involvement in services
2.01 Accepting Clients
Roxanne is a 23-year-old woman with intellectual disabilities who has not been adjudicated incompetent. Roxanne lives with her parents, and they are all happy with this living arrangement. They hire Martine, a BCBA, to work with Roxanne on improving her social skills. Roxanne is extraordinarily thin, and she tells Martine that “everyone thinks my body looks awful” and so she is embarrassed to go out in public or interact with peers. After getting approval from Roxanne’s physician, Martine agrees to assist Roxanne with a weight gain program using a system of healthy higher calorie foods with reinforcement for following the plan. However, Roxanne’s parents are unhappy with Martine’s plan, stating that they were paying for Martine “to work on social skills, not just eating more food.” They initially refuse to give their consent for this plan (even though legally, their consent is unnecessary). What is the best course of action for Martine?
A)Explain to Roxanne’s parents that Roxanne is competent, and thus, she is her own guardian; Subsequently, they must respect her wishes as to what she would like to work on during her sessions
B)Explain to Roxanne that she needs to work on social skills and drop the diet plan since her parents will not comply with the plan.
C)Sit down together with Roxanne and her parents and discuss the issues that are important to each to see if they can come to some agreement
D)Attempt to obtain independent payment for behavioral services through Roxanne’s monthly stipends
Sit down together with Roxanne and her parents and discuss the issues that are important to each to see if they can come to some agreement
Jessica has started working with a 7-year old child with language delays and significant behavior problems. She quickly realizes that this case is much more complicated than she initially anticipated. Jessica decides to bring in Dr. Merle Windstone as a consultant on the case but she does not tell the parents, wanting to avoid damaging her credibility. What Code element is Jessica violating in this scenario?
A)Multiple Relationships and Conflicts of Interest
B)Documenting Professional Work and Research
D)Referrals and Fees
An attorney contacts Phillip, a BCBA, to serve as an expert witness in a case. He is told that he will be paid a significant fee to recommend that a child with autism spectrum disorder be placed in the custody of her mother (rather than her father). What would be the most appropriate course of action in this case?
A)Meet with the attorney and the mother to identify the best way to help them achieve their goals in court
B)Accept the case, and then clarify to the mother and lawyer that he will strongly consider the mom’s side, but will testify according to the results of his evaluation.
C)Before testifying, request a proposed list of recommendations for his court testimony, to assist him in structuring the presentation of data in his evaluation
D)Before taking the case, clarify to the mother and lawyer that he must testify according to the results of his evaluation, not a predetermined outcome
Before taking the case, clarify to the mother and lawyer that he must testify according to the results of his evaluation, not a predetermined outcome
Elsie, Caitlyn and Tom are sitting in a restaurant talking about their time together working in a state institution. Tom, the only behavior analyst among the three, left the institution a few months ago, while Elsie and Caitlyn (both O.T.s) continue working with the same caseload of adult women with whom they had all worked. Tom makes sure nobody is within hearing distance when he asks Elsie, “How is Terry doing? And Enunciata? And Joann? I really miss them.” Is Tom violating the Professional and Ethical Compliance code?
A)Yes. He has set the occasion for, and in fact encouraged a discussion of confidential information in a public place
B)No. He made sure nobody was nearby to hear their private conversation
C)No. He is not the one who would be sharing confidential information, and Elsie and Caitlyn are not behavior analysts.
D)Yes, because he will almost certainly say something during this discussion, and that would be a breach
Yes. He has set the occasion for, and in fact encouraged a discussion of confidential information in a public place
Which of the following would be considered totally improperrecord maintenance?
A)All of the options listed ARE proper forms of record maintenance
B)When transporting files, Andy keeps all documents in a locked box or locked briefcase inside his locked trunk. He only leaves them in the locked vehicle for short periods of time, and never overnight.
C)Once documents are no longer necessary to keep on file, Andy rips them apart at least 3 or 4 times, and then puts them in a sealed plastic bag and places them in a garbage can which is scheduled for pick-up the next morning.
D)Andy protects electronic files with significant encryption and password protection. He does not tell anyone his password.
Once documents are no longer necessary to keep on file, Andy rips them apart at least 3 or 4 times, and then puts them in a sealed plastic bag and places them in a garbage can which is scheduled for pick-up the next morning.
Billy is an employee for a behavioral services agency. All documentation of his services is formally legal property of the agency. He has been working for the last 18 months with Richie, an 8-year old who still requires services. Billy has established a good working relationship with Richie and his entire family. Richie is moving with his family to another state. By chance, Billy happens to be moving to the same state very soon. Billy will be working as an independent provider in the new state. The family wants to continue receiving services from Billy if possible. Billy wants to take the case files with him, as he wrote most of the information contained in the file. Billy should:
A)Take the original files with him. The old agency should no longer have access to these confidential files.
B)Obtain a written release for the confidential information, and then take all the original files with him to his new state
C)Obtain a written release for the confidential information, and only then may he take secure copies of the appropriate files with him
D)It is illegal for Billy to take copies of information across state lines in any circumstance, even with a written release
Obtain a written release for the confidential information, and only then may he take secure copies of the appropriate files with him
Between 1989 and 1990, the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) produced the following documents related to the standards, professional conduct, and ethical practice of applied behavior analysis:
X = The Right to Effective Behavioral Treatment
Y = The Right to a Therapeutic Environment
Z = The Right to Effective Education
A)Y and Z
B)X and Z
C)X, Y, and Z
D)X and Y
X & Z
Which of the following would be an example of an accurately documented behavioral service? Jamie provided behavior analysis services on 11/17/15. She then wrote a progress note on __________.
A)All of these are examples of accurate documentation
B)12/1/15, and dated it, “11/17/15”.
C)12/1/15 and dated it, “12/1/15”. She stated in the note that it is, “documenting services provided on 11/17/15”.
D)11/17/15, the same day that the service was provided, and dated it “11/17”.
12/1/15 and dated it, “12/1/15”. She stated in the note that it is, “documenting services provided on 11/17/15”.
All of the following behavior analysts are acting appropriately in terms of Code 2.11: Records and Data, except for ____.
A)Brooks, who stores client records in his home office in a locked filing cabinet
B)Louis, who effectively destroys client files and data immediately upon closure of a case, to avoid being in possession of confidential material after the case is over
C)Chris, who creates billing sheets according to funding source guidelines that document the “behavior analysis units of service” she provides
D)Hilary, who cross-cut shreds any written records after keeping them secure for the period mandated by law
Louis, who effectively destroys client files and data immediately upon closure of a case, to avoid being in possession of confidential material after the case is over
Carl, BCBA, received a referral for Robin, a 7-year old girl, who engages in potentially health-threatening polydipsia (excessive liquid intake) and lives with her parents. Robin’s parents specifically requested services from a BCBA. The state approved a specific amount of funding for “behavioral services” for Robin, but the authorization did not specify any type(s) or level(s) of behavioral services. It simply provided a financial amount for “behavioral services for 3 months”, with the option to file for a continuation of services if needed. After his initial in-home observation, Carl recommends a number of hours of behavior services per week that will be needed, for at least the first 3 months of service. The current funding level does not support this number of hours to be delivered solely by a BCBA-level behavior analyst. Depending on the severity of Robin’s behavior, and her need for services, Carl could ethically do any of the following, EXCEPT:
A)Begin the case, and write a justification letter for an immediate funding increase, based on documented medical necessity; submit it to the funding source to obtain additional hours as needed.
B)If she poses a severe health crisis, he cannot ethically accept the case in-home unless adequate funding is provided. Immediately contact the funding source requesting emergency funding. Discuss possible hospitalization.
C)Work the case as a BCBA until all the approved hours are used up, and then suspend treatment until additional BCBA hours are approved by the funding source
D)Recommend services be provided mainly by a skilled BCaBA with strong experience and expertise in this area, at a lower per-hour cost; provide limited BCBA hours to monitor and supervise.
Work the case as a BCBA until all the approved hours are used up, and then suspend treatment until additional BCBA hours are approved by the funding source.
Jackson, a BCBA, runs a small behavior analysis service agency. He has a good reputation, and has received many referrals that he cannot address due to his lack of additional staff. He knows that a competent behavior analyst, Manny, has just moved to the local area and is looking for clients. Jackson offers to send appropriate referrals to Manny (based on Manny’s experience and professional repertoire) for a modest fee of $150 per referral, “just to help him get going”. Manny gratefully accepts his offer. Based on Code element 2.14: Referrals and fees, which of the following statements is correct?
A)This is not acceptable. It is never appropriate for a behavior analyst to charge a fee or pay a fee to give or receive a referral.
B)This is a perfectly acceptable practice, as it helps Jackson reduce his wait list and allows Manny to build his practice. Without this arrangement, clients would have to wait too long for services.
C)This is not acceptable because the referral fee is too high. A referral fee can be no higher than $100 according to the code.
D)This is not acceptable. The referring behavior analyst must provide ongoing monitoring (and possible supervision) of services due to the referral relationship.
This is not acceptable. It is never appropriate for a behavior analyst to charge a fee or pay a fee to give or receive a referral.
Zacharly, a BCBA, has been diagnosed with brain cancer. Even with intensive treatment, he has been told that he is not likely to survive more than 6 months. He immediately contacts Igor, another behavior analyst who has strong experience with the type of consumers Zacharly serves. He invites Igor to his office, and asks if he can take over his client caseload right away. Igor agrees, and immediately begins to review the clinical records. Igor attends all of Zacharly’s next scheduled appointments, and tells the various consumers that he has taken over their cases, at least temporarily, due to Zacharly’s emergency medical situation. Which Code element listed below, if any, have these two behavior analysts violated in this scenario?
X = 2.08 Disclosures
Y = 2.09 Treatment/intervention efficacy
Z = 2.15 Interrupting or Discontinuing Services
A)X and Z
B)None. Zacharly and Igor are taking proper steps to maintain services without interruption
C)X and Y
D)Y and Z
X & Z
Jake is 33 years old. He has not been adjudicated incompetent, but engages in almost no verbal behavior (other than a few echoics, termed by speech therapist as “echolalia”). He is generally compliant with staff prompts to participate in daily activities. His capacity to provide informed consent is limited at best. He begins to participate in a non-restrictive research study on the CEO-S, where he can earn a lot of his favorite food items, and also earns time in a preferred leisure activity (watching the guide scroll on the cable TV). Jake actively participates in a couple of sessions, but in subsequent sessions Jake begins to refuse to comply with directions, and repeatedly gets up and goes to the exit door, only returning to his seat when physically prompted to do so. The behavior analyst should:
A)Discontinue Jake’s participation in the study immediately
B)Make a reasonable effort to convince Jake to continue, and reconsider if Jake continues to display signs of unwillingness for more than 7 consecutive sessions.
C)Explain to Jake’s advocate and caregivers that he is a very important part of the research, and enlist their assistance in keeping Jake in the study area
D)Continue, as Jake gives implied consent by arriving at the study area; moreover, this is a non-restrictive research setting, and provides reinforcement
Discontinue Jake’s participation in the study immediately
Julie has been hired to write behavior programs for adults with special needs who live in a group home. After taking the job, she notes that several of these adults engage in moderate forms of “aggression”. Julie has a large caseload and many demands on her time. She interviews the group home staff, and then writes a standard treatment plan for several of these consumers, since they live in the same place and are engaging in similar forms of “aggression”. Which Code element, if any, is Julie violating in this case?
A)Records and Data
B)Julie is writing a standard house rule with consequences for “aggression”; this does not violate any code element
According to the BACB® Professional and Ethical Compliance Code, prior to implementing proposed behavior assessment procedures, the behavior analyst must obtain written approval from ________.
No one. Assessments do not require written approval, treatment interventions do.
The client and the behavior analyst’s supervisor
The client, the behavior analyst’s supervisor, and the residential manager
Lyon is an adolescent living with his mom. Lyon has violent outbursts, often when his mom is leaving to work weekends at her job at a local diner. After conducting a functional assessment, Daniel (the BCBA) meets with Lyon’s mom to discuss the assessment results. During the meeting, Daniel uses precise technical language to make sure he is absolutely conceptually systematic, and answers her questions and concerns by referring to tables of assessment data. He also discusses, in detail, the relevant research articles that substantiate his conclusions. Is Daniel potentially violating a Code element? If so, which one?
A)Yes; Exploitative Relationships
B)Yes; Explaining Assessment Results
C)No, he is not violating any Code element here; he is following Code element, Reliance on Scientific Knowledge
D)Yes; Accuracy in Billing Reports
Yes; Explaining Assessment Results
Luca is a behavior analyst with many years of experience working with adults with schizophrenia. One day, he receives a phone call from a psychiatrist asking for information about Saul, one of Luca’s previous clients. Saul was deemed non-competent by a court of law in the past, and was assigned a legal guardian. How should Luca proceed?
A)Obtain written consent from Saul’s legal guardians before sending any records to the psychiatrist
B)Send the records to the psychiatrist as soon as possible, given his medical license and likely involvement with the court.
C)Tell the psychiatrist that he (Luca) is bound by rules of confidentiality and can only release the records with a court order.
D)Have the psychiatrist fax his credentials, and if they are in order, send Saul’s information to the psychiatrist
Obtain written consent from Saul’s legal guardians before sending any records to the psychiatrist
Consultation, Maintaining Confidentiality, and Treatment/Intervention Efficacy are specific Code elements under which of the following broad categories in the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code?
A)Behavior Analysts and The Individual Behavior-Change Program
B)Behavior Analysts’ Responsibility to Clients
C)Responsible Conduct of Behavior Analysts
Behavior Analysts’ Responsibility to Clients
Ashley spent her practicum in an autism clinic focused on early intervention, mainly providing verbal behavior training to children less than 6 years of age. Due to the large number of graduates from the same program in her area, she has found it difficult to get cases now that she has her own private practice (there is a lot of competition). One day, a support coordinator calls her with a referral to work with an adult with Down’s syndrome who lives in a group home and has been physically aggressive toward his housemates. Ashley eagerly accepts the case, hoping it might lead to additional referrals for services. Which Code element is Ashley most likely violating in this scenario?
A)2.04 Third-Party Involvement in Services
B)2.01 Accepting Clients
2.01 Accepting Clients
Given the above scenario, and the additional information that Ashley has outstanding student loans, on which she may not be able to maintain payments for much longer due to her current lack of client caseload, what can Ashley do to avoid violating the salient Code element?
A)Decline to take the case, and call the bank to ask for forbearance on her student loans; if this fails, she can simply default on the loans.
B)Contact a colleague who has worked in similar group homes, and ask for direct consultation/supervision on this case so that she can expand her repertoire
C)Take the case, as it is critical to her livelihood; she can study books and journal articles (in JABA, The Behavior Analyst, etc.) to gain competence in this area
D)Ask the group home managers if they have any leads on children with autism that she might work with instead
Contact a colleague who has worked in similar group homes, and ask for direct consultation/supervision on this case so that she can expand her repertoire
Sophie is a young woman with a mild developmental disability who lives in an apartment with a roommate. One of her goals is to learn to play the violin, so her behavior analyst helps her set up a self-monitoring program to track her hours of practice. Sophie increases her practice to several hours every night. Her apartment-mate complains that the sound of the violin is very disturbing. Which Code element did the behavior analyst fail to consider?
A)Behavior analysts have a primary obligation and take reasonable precautions to respect the confidentiality of those with whom they work
B)Behavior analysts arrange for appropriate consultations and referrals based principally on the best interests of their clients
C)The behavior analyst accepts as clients only those individuals or entities whose behavior problems or requested service are commensurate with the behavior analyst’s education, training, and experience.
D)The behavior analyst’s responsibility is to all parties affected by behavioral services.
The behavior analyst’s responsibility is to all parties affected by behavioral services.
Clair is a behavior analyst working with a child who uses signs as his primary form of communication (he vocalizes, but is unintelligible). A speech and language pathologist, who has already obtained written consent from the child’s parents to discuss the case, leaves a phone message and a text message for Clair. Clair does not respond to these messages from the speech pathologist, but contacts the child’s parents and recommends that they focus therapeutic efforts on behavior analysis services, possibly including some verbal behavior programming. What Code element has Clair most likely violated in this scenario?
A)Referrals and Fees
“When a behavior analysts agrees to provide services to a person or entity at the request of a third party, the behavior analyst clarifies to the extent feasible, at the outset of the services, the nature of the relationship with each party. This clarification includes the role of the behavior analyst (such as therapist, organizational consultant, or expert witness). The probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the fact that there may be limits to confidentiality.” What Code element is this statement related to?
A)Third-Party Involvement in Services
C)Professional and Scientific Relationships
D)Referrals and Fees
Third-Party Involvement in Services
For a behavior analyst, confidentiality has limits and may be breached under which of the following conditions?
X = Court orders to testify
Y = Reporting the abuse of children, elders, or disabled persons
Z = Providing information to parents of adults with developmental disabilities
A)X, Y, and Z
D)X and Y only
X & Y only
Ray stores some electronic files to a cloud-based server from his password-protected home computer. Otherwise, only his wife and young children have access to this password and personal cloud, and use it saving family photos, school papers, etc. They know not to open any of his business files, and have in fact never opened any of his files. Moreover, he has some “history” features in his system to monitor his children’s computer habits, he would know almost immediately if they had opened a single file. Is Ray violating any Professional and Ethical Compliance Code elements here?
A)No; as long as the family promises not to access or share the files, this is okay
B)Yes; this is not proper record maintenance, since confidentiality is not maintained
C)No; Ray can monitor the files to see if they have been opened, and provide appropriate contingencies as needed to prevent any problems
D)Yes; it is okay for his wife to have access to these files, but not his kids
Yes; this is not proper record maintenance, since confidentiality is not maintained
In relation to treatment efficacy, the behavior analyst always has the responsibility to recommend:
A)Procedures that align most closely with the desires of the caregivers
B)The scientifically-supported most likely-to-be-effective procedures
C)All of these are correct regarding treatment efficacy
D)The newest treatment procedures discussed in the literature
The scientifically-supported most likely-to-be-effective procedures
Which of the following is true when one documents professional and scientific work?
X = The standard for detail in documentation of behavior analytic services is higher if records are likely to be used in legal proceedings
Y = Behavior analysts document their work, in part, to facilitate provision of services later by them or other professionals
B)X and Y
C)Neither X nor Y
Which of the following is an example of best practice as it relates to documentation?
A)Patti-Ann supervises Amy each week on Fridays and already has the forms filled out so all that is left to do is have Amy sign at the end of the session
B)Alicia waits until the end of the month to do her progress notes and dates each note as having been written on the actual date of service during the month
C)Carla is very careful to write down the month and the day of the sessions she conducts with Jill
D)Astrid indicates the actual date when she writes the monthly progress note, as well as the date when the service was provided
Astrid indicates the actual date when she writes the monthly progress note, as well as the date when the service was provided
When should the behavior analyst and the client (or other party responsible for payment for service) reach an agreement specifying compensation and billing arrangements?
A)These arrangements should not be discussed, but set by outside agents; behavior analysts focus on assessment and treatment, and leave the finances to others
B)So long as the behavior analyst has a website indicating standard hourly fees, this issue never needs to be discussed directly, unless there is a complaint from the consumer
C)Payment may be discussed and decided upon at any time during treatment
D)Prior to the initiation of services (and as early as feasible in the initial discussions with the consumer or billable party)
Prior to the initiation of services (and as early as feasible in the initial discussions with the consumer or billable party)
Natasha receives multiple behavioral services, including behavior analysis services and behavior assistant services. A BCaBA provides four hours of direct service per week, while a BCBA provides 1 hour per week of supervision and monitoring. In addition, a couple of different RBTs provide 20 hours per week of behavior assistance services. A single clinical services agency, Agent of Change, Inc., provides all services and submits invoices for reimbursement from the funding resource. How should Agent of Change, Inc. bill for the services it provides?
A)Provide an invoice that bills by two separate categories: “behavior analysis services” and “behavior assistant services”
B)All of these answers are acceptable
C)Provide an invoice detailing how many hours (with per-hour rate) are billed for each distinct service provider: BCBA, BCaBA, and RBTs
D)Provide an invoice clearly labeled “Behavior Services” with the total amount
Provide an invoice detailing how many hours (with per-hour rate) are billed for each distinct service provider: BCBA, BCaBA, and RBTs
If a behavior analyst learns that he or she has a terminal illness, the behavior analyst should:
A)Terminate services immediately, as it would be unethical to continue providing services with a terminal illness
B)Select another provider of behavior services, and transition all service authorizations to that provider, and then inform the consumer
C)Make a reasonable effort to facilitate a transition of services for their clients to alternative providers
D)Continue working with the client until he or she is physically no longer capable of working, as this is their ethical obligation
Make a reasonable effort to facilitate a transition of services for their clients to alternative providers
Informed consent is defined by all of the following elements, except:
Which of the following is NOT a consideration when obtaining/reviewing consent?
Which of the following Code elements should one follow when assessing behavior?
X = Use a type of assessment that is determined by a client’s need and consent, environmental variables, and other contextual variables
Y = Seek a medical consultation if there is any reasonable possibility that a referred behavior is influenced by medical or biological variables
C)Neither X nor Y
D)Both X and Y
Both X & Y
Jim is hired to provide behavior analytic services to Paul, an adult with developmental disabilities. Paul lives in a group home and has been declared legally incompetent by the State. Although the parents had approved the initiation of behavioral services, they had left on a cruise by the time Jim began to work on the case. Jim met Paul and wanted to begin immediately, so he conducted a descriptive assessment and a brief analogue functional analysis. Two weeks later, when Paul’s parents returned from the cruise, Jim immediately informed them of the assessment results, and outlined his preliminary plan to proceed. They approved of Jim’s plan for continued behavioral services. Did Jim violate a code in this scenario? If so, which one?
A)No; Jim followed proper protocol to provide timely services
B)Yes; Accuracy in Billing Reports
C)Yes; Accepting Clients
D)Yes; Behavior-Analytic Assessment Consent
Yes; Behavior-Analytic Assessment Consent
Walter, a BCaBA, is working on obtaining a Master’s Degree in ABA. In his practicum work he conducts a functional assessment on one of his clients, and then he meets with the client to discuss the status of the program development and set some goals. How should Walter proceed?
A)Do not explain the assessment results. Doing so could result in reactivity, and subsequent data would be severely compromized
B)Explain the assessment results using everyday language; ask the client if he understands, and if he says yes, have him sign the consent form to proceed
C)Explain the assessment results using everyday language; ask his client specific questions to ensure understanding before obtaining written consent to proceed
D)Explain the assessment results using technical language; present numerical data, to be conceptually systematic, and to ensure accountability
Explain the assessment results using everyday language; ask his client specific questions to ensure understanding before obtaining written consent to proceed
Fabio is a student who is seeking supervision to complete his hours of training to sit for the BCBA Exam. He works at an agency that provides services to children with developmental disabilities. Unfortunately, at the current time, the agency does not have any behavior analysts on staff who are qualified to provide supervision to Fabio. Fabio contacts Maria, a local BCBA with many years of experience working with children with similar problems. Maria agrees to supervise him at a reasonable cost, and they sign a contract formalizing the relationship. Fabio immediately provides Mary with copies of the records of all of his current clients, to help her prepare for their first supervision meeting. What Code element does Fabio appear to be violating?
B)Third-Party Involvement in Services
C)None: This is not a violation since Fabio contracted Mary as his supervisor
D)Approving Behavior-Change Programs