Unit 2: Autonomic nervous system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Autonomic nervous system Deck (35):
1

How many prescribed drugs affect ANS?

More than 50%

2

Characteristics of a neurotransmitter

synthesized in a presynaptic terminal, stored in vesicle, regulate release into synapse for binding postsynaptic membrane

3

Pre-ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic

Very long, start in sc end at target organ, release ACH to activate nicotinic receptors

4

Post-ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic

short, synapse at target organ, release ACH to activate muscarinic receptors

5

Pre-ganglionic neurons of sympathetic

very short, start in sc and end near sc, release ACH and activate nicotinic receptors

6

Post-gangliionic neurons of sympathetic

long, end at organ, release norepinephrine to activate adrenergic (a or B) receptors

7

3 exceptions of post-ganglioinic sympathetic neurons

postga neurons involved with thermoregulation release ACH to work on muscarinic rcts; postga to kidneys release dopamine; prega to adrenal glands synapse directly on adrenal gland: release ACH and activate nicotinic rcts, A glands release epi and activate adrenergic rcts

8

Acetylcholine released by

preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neuron, postganglionic parasympathetic neurons, adrenal glands, sweat glands, skeletal muscle vasculature

9

Epinephrine released by

adrenal gland once the sympathetic system has been activated

10

Norepinephrine released by

postganglionic sympathetic neurons in most end organs

11

The most often site of pharmacologic manipulation

ganglionic synapse, between pre and post

12

Strategies for pharmacological intervention

block synthesis and storage, block release, block reuptake, interfere with metabolism, interfere with recognition

13

Parasympathomimetics

cholinergic, muscarinic agonists

14

sympathomimetics

adrenergic, adrenergic agonists

15

Parasympatholytics

anticholinergic, muscarinic antagonists: stops digestion

16

Parasympatholytics

anticholinergic, muscarinic antagonists: stops digestion

17

sympatholytics

antiadrenergic, adrenergic antagonists

18

Nicotinic receptor stimulatory action

binding of ACH is always stimulatory

19

Muscarinic cholinergic receptor

main receptor at parasympathetic site, mediates secretion and smooth muscle contraction, inhibitory or stimulatory, five subtypes

20

Muscarinic subtype

M2-found in heart, M3-found in glands and smooth muscle, M1,4,5- found in CNS

21

Adrenergic receptors

a1, a2, usually stimulatory B1, B2, B3, usually inhibitory except in heart

22

A1

most blood vessels, contraction of smooth muscle, eye and urinary sphincter

23

A2

mostly in CNS and target organs, decreases vascular resistance

24

B1

Found in heart, kidney and brain; increases heart force and contraction, mediates renin

25

B2

Found in lungs, skeletal muscle vasculature, uterus, mediates s. muscle relaxation

26

B3

fat cells and lipolysis

27

Cholinergic effects

DUMBELS; defecation, urination, miosis, bradycardia, emesis, lacrimation, salivation

28

Anticholinergic effects

Dry as a bone; decreased sweating, decrease salivation, bronchodilation, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention

29

Anticholinergic effects

Dry as a bone; decreased sweating, decrease salivation, bronchodilation, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention

30

Aqueous humor formed by?

ciliary epithelium, B2

31

Miosis/mydriasis

Pupil contraction, dilation

32

Receptor of Circular eye muscles

ACH binds to M3, contraction, antagonists cause dilation

33

Receptor of radial muscles

Norepinephrine binds to a1, causes contraction of muscle: dilation

34

Receptor of bladder

B2 causes relaxation, a1-norepi binding causes sphincter contraction; M3 causes relaxation of sphincter

35

Receptors of heart

ACH/muscarinic receptors agonists decrease heart rate; norepi/ B1 receptors agonists increase hr and contractility