Unit 2 - Biochemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 - Biochemistry Deck (27):
1

Carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body

2

Lipid

macromoleculemade mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils and waxes

3

Protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen;needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

4

Nucleic Acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus

5

Starch( not in glossary)

A polysaccharide carbohydrate (C6H10O5)n consisting of a large number of glucose monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds found especially in seeds, bulbs, and tubers.

6

Cellulose

A carbohydrate that is a polymer composed of glucose units and that is the main component of the cell walls of most plants. It is insoluble in water and is used to make paper, cellophane, textiles, explosives, and other products.

7

Hemoglobin

an iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body.

8

Fat

lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body and stores energy in the body

9

DNA

nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose

10

RNA

single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose.

11

Insulin( not in glossary)

a hormone that lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. It's made by the beta cells of the pancreas and released into the blood when the glucose level goes up, such as after eating.

12

Glycogen ( not in glossary)

A branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced in liver and muscle cells, and functions as secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells. Supplement.

13

Glucose( not in glossary)

main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the body's cells...comes from the foods we eat or the body can make it from other substances...is carried to the cells through the bloodstream.

14

Amino Acid

compound with an amino group ( -NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group ( -COOH) on the other end

15

Dipeptide( not in glossary)

A compound consisting of two amino acid units joined at the amino (–NH 2) end of one and the carboxyl (–COOH) end of the other....formed by a condensation reaction that involves the removal of one molecule of water.

16

Nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar; a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

17

Monomer

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

18

Polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

19

Monosaccharide

single sugar molecule

20

Polysaccharide

large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides

21

pH Scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14

22

Enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

23

Denature( not in glossary)

process modifying the molecular structure of a protein. involves the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds (e.g., hydrogen bonds), within a protein molecule that are responsible for the highly ordered structure of the protein in its natural (native) state.

24

Substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

25

Active Site( not in glossary)

refers to the specific region of an enzyme where a substrate binds and catalysis takes place or where chemical reaction occurs.

26

Reactant

element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction

27

Buffer

weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in PH