Unit 2: Biochemistry Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Biochemistry Vocab Deck (41):
1

Energy input necessary to start a chemical reaction

Activation Energy

2

Molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur that link together to make proteins

Amino Acid

3

A measure of the energy released by digesting food.

Calorie

4

Molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that include sugars and starches and are the primary source of energy for living things

Carbohydrate

5

A substance that increases the reaction rate (speeds up) of a chemical reaction

Catalyst

6

A polysaccharide that makes up the cell walls of plants and cannot be digested by animals

Cellulose

7

Process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds

Chemical Reaction

8

A complex polysaccharide that makes up the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeleton of certain invertebrates

Chitin

9

A carbohydrate made of two monosaccharides bonded together

Disaccharide

10

Large, double-stranded nucleic acid molecules that stores the genetic information in cells

DNA

11

A chemical reaction that absorbs energy (heat)

Endothermic

12

A class of proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living things

Enzymes

13

A chemical reaction that releases energy (heat)

Exothermic

14

Lipids made of glycerol and three fatty acids (triglycerides) that contain mostly saturated fatty acids and are solid at room temperature

Fats

15

Six-carbon monosaccharide found often in fruit

Fructose

16

The most common monosaccharide, a six-carbon sugar produced by plants during photosynthesis

Glucose

17

Three-carbon molecule that forms the backbone of fats and oils called triglycerides

Glycerol

18

A polysaccharide made by animals used to store glucose

Glycogen

19

Non-polar molecule containing mostly carbon and hydrogen that includes fats, oils, and cholesterol

Lipid

20

A very large molecule

Macromolecule

21

Disaccharide made of two glucose molecules bonded together

Maltose

22

A small molecule that is a subunit of a larger molecule

Monomer

23

A simple sugar

Monosaccharide

24

Etremely long polumer made of necleotides that store the instructions for building proteins.

Nucleic Acid

25

A monomer composed of a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base that can be linked to make nucleic acids

Nucleotide

26

Lipids made of a glycerol and three fatty acids (triglycerides) that contain more unsaturated fatty acids and remain liquid at room temperature

Oils

27

A polymer that comes from living things

Organic Polymer

28

Measure of the acidity of a solution

pH

29

Lipids made of a glycerol attached to two fatty acids and a phosphate group that make up the bulk of cell membranes

Phospholipids

30

A large molecule made of many monomers bonded together

Polymer

31

A complex carbohydrate made of many monosaccharied bonded togeher

Polysaccharide

32

Substance formed by a chemical reaction

Product

33

A polymer made of amino acids that have various functions in the body

Protein

34

Substance that is changed by a chemical reaction

Reactant

35

Smaller single-stranded nucleic acid molecule involved in the production of proteins

RNA

36

Very long chain of carbon and hydrogen molecules that contains only single bonds

Saturated Fatty Acid

37

A polysacchride made by plants that is used to store glucose molecules

Starch

38

Lipid hormones made from cholesterold used in cell signaling

Steroids

39

Reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts

Substrate

40

Disaccharide made of a glucose bonded to a fructose. Also known as table sugar

Sucrose

41

Very long chain of carbon and hydrogen molecules that contains one or more double bonds

Unsaturated Fatty Acid