Unit 2: Inflammatory, Metabolic, Nutritional, and Toxic Diseases Flashcards Preview

Neuro > Unit 2: Inflammatory, Metabolic, Nutritional, and Toxic Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2: Inflammatory, Metabolic, Nutritional, and Toxic Diseases Deck (33):
1

L1: What is the most common CNS inflammatory disease?

Multiple Sclerosis

2

L1: What pathologic process? Rapid correction or overcorrection of hyponatremia

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

3

L2: What are the effects of methanol intoxication?

Putamen hemorrhagic necrosis

4

L2: What is the affect of acute alcohol intoxication on the CNS?

Severe cerebral edema

5

L2: What is the nutritional deficiency in Wernicke's encephalopathy?

thiamine (Vitamine B1)

6

L2: What is the pathogenesis of Wilson's disease?

Defect in copper metabolism

7

L2: What is the treatment for acute attacks in MS?

high dose corticosteroids, plasmapheresis (severe)

8

L2: What is the treatment for Wilson's Disease?

Copper-chelating agents

9

L2: What is the typical age of presentation for MS?

15-45 years

10

L2: What part of the brain is affected by thiamine deficiency in Korsakoff Syndrome?

Dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus

11

L2: What part of the brain is most commonly affected in Wernicke's encephalopathy?

Mamillary bodies

12

L2: What pathologic process? Abnormalities in Myelin Basic Protein, leading to demyelination of the CNS

Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency

13

L2: What pathologic process? Astrocytes with swollen, vesicular nuclei and minimal visible cytoplasm

Hepatic encephalopathy

14

L2: What pathologic process? Autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism

Wilson's Disease

15

L2: What pathologic process? Caused by strict vegtarian diet, pernicious anemia, or gastric neoplasms

Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency

16

L2: What pathologic process? CNS disturbances in electrolytes, pH, water, and neurotransmitter regulation

Hepatic encephalopathy

17

L2: What pathologic process? Confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia

Wernicke's encephalopathy

18

L2: What pathologic process? Degeneration of superior cerebellar vermis, cerebral cortex white matter loss and dendritic reduction, meningeal fibrosis

Chronic alcoholism

19

L2: What pathologic process? dysarthria, gait disturbances, limb incoordination, involuntary movements, dystonias, intelligence deterioration, flapping tremor, spasticity

Wilson's Disease

20

L2: What pathologic process? Early paresthesias, monocular loss of vision, gait problems, weakness, diplopia, Lhermitte’s paresthesias down the spine with neck flexion, urinary urgency/frequency, constipation

MS

21

L2: What pathologic process? Edema, demyelination, necrosis, neuron loss, gliosis

Wernicke's encephalopathy

22

L2: What pathologic process? Flapping tremor, confusion, forgetfulness, drowsiness, and eventually stupor or coma

Hepatic encephalopathy

23

L2: What pathologic process? Involvement of mammillary bodies almost always, walls of third ventricle, periaqueductal tissue, inferior colliculi, floor of fourth ventricle, thalamus

Wernicke's encephalopathy

24

L2: What pathologic process? Late fatigue, sexual dysfunction, depression, pain, dysphagia, seizures and hearing loss in rare cases

MS

25

L2: What pathologic process? memory loss due to thiamine deficiency in the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus

Korsakoff Syndrome

26

L2: What pathologic process? Paresthesias, ataxia, abnormal reflexes, diminished vibration sensation and proprioception in lower extremities

Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency

27

L2: What pathologic process? Putamen hemorrhagic necrosis

Methanol intoxication

28

L2: What pathologic process? Severe cerebral edema

Acute acohol intoxication

29

L2: What pathologic process? Thiamine deficiency

Wernicke's encephalopathy

30

L2: Which subtype of MS is more commonly diagnosed?

Relapse-Remitting (RRMS)

31

L3: What genetic mutations/markers are associated with MS? (3)

HLA-DR2, IL-2, IL-17

32

L4: Name the four first-line immunotherapies for MS?

Avonex, Betaseron, Copaxone, Repif

33

L4: What are the three effects of chronic alcoholism on the CNS?

Degeneration of superior cerebellar vermis, cerebral cortex white matter loss and dendritic reduction, meningeal fibrosis