Unit 2- Molecules of life Flashcards Preview

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What makes up all living things?



C has 4 outer (vaillent) electrons (6p, 6n) making it really good a bonding so it can make fairly stable large carbon molecules.


What is a functional group?

Name 6 functional groups.

What is its structure?

What do they do?

Parts of a molecule that give it behaviour.

Carboxyl [COOH]
Amino [NH₂]
Carbonyl [CO]
Phosphate [POO₃]
Methyl [CH₃]
Hydroxyl [OH]


What are monomers?

What are polymers?

Monomers - The building blocks of Polymers

Polymers - Large macromolecules


How are polymers made?

What are the products of this reaction?

Dehydration reactions - Amino Acids bond together. in this process a [OH] from its carboxyl functional group bonds with a [H] from its amino functional group. This results in water as a byproduct.

Water & a Polymer with a peptide bond where the water has been taken from.


How are Polymer broken down?

Hydrolysis - Water is added to a polymer. This causes the peptide bond to break.


What are 4 Polymers?
What are its monomers?

Nucleic Acids (e.g RNA DNA) - made from nucleotides.

Proteins - made from amino acids.

Lipids - fatty acids and glycerols

Carbohydrates ( disaccharides and polysaccharides ) - monosaccharides.


How many amino acids do humans need to survive?