Unit 2: Types of Rocks Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Types of Rocks Deck (32):
1

The literal meaning of igneous

Fire.

2

How are igneous rocks formed?

Crystallization of magma.

3

What are the 3 factors that affect magma formation?

1. Temperature.
2. Pressure.
3. Water Content.

4

What are some of the valuable uses of igneous rocks?

1. As construction materials - granite counter tops.
2. As valuable ore deposits for silver, gold, lead, or copper.

5

Pegmatites

Contain gemstone like garnets.

6

Kimberlites

Contain diamonds.

7

Sediment

Pieces of solid material deposited on the Earth's surface.

8

Types of sediment (Smallest to biggest)

Clay
Silt
Sand
Gravel

9

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

1. Rocks are weathered (broken down).
2. Sediments are eroded (moving).
3. Sediments are deposited (put down), often in layers called bedded.
4. Bedded layers are buried.
5. Bedded layers are lithified, or turned into stone by the process of compaction and cementation.

10

Why are sedimentary rocks important?

1. Contain fossils.
2. Energy resources - crude oil and natural gas (animals), and coal (plants).
3. Uranium (nuclear fuel), found in sandstone which is a sedimentary rock.

11

Fall line

The line of erosion between the Piedmont and the coastal plain regions at which hard erosion-resistant rocks (igneous or metamorphic) descend into softer, Eastern rocks (sedimentary).

12

Clastic

- Means broken.
1. Coarse grained (pebbles) - Conglomerate.
2. Medium grained (sand) - Sandstone.
3. Fine grained (clay) - Shale.

13

How do clastic sedimentary rocks form?

Broken pieces of sediment are buried (in beds/layers) and are cemented together.

14

Chemical

1. Calcite (CaCO3) - Limestone.
2. Halite (NaCi) - Rock Salt.

15

How are sedimentary rock chemically formed?

Water evaporates leaving the rock behind.

16

Organic

- Means from life, and contains a lot of carbon.
1. Limestone ans shells - Coquina Limestone
2. Swampy plant matter - Coal.

17

How are organic sedimentary rocks formed?

From fossils-living things that get turned into rock.

18

Metamorphic

A change in form.

19

How do metamorphic rocks form?

High temperature and heat.pressure combine to alter the texture, mineralogy, or chemical composition of a rock without melting it.

20

Regional Metamorphism

When large regions of the Earth's crust are affected by high temperatures and pressures.

21

Contact Metamorphism

Occurs when molten rock come in contact with solid rock.

22

Hydrothermal Metamorphism

Occurs where very hot water reacts with rock and alters its chemistry and mineralogy.

23

What are the practical uses for Metamorphic rock?

1. Economically valuable - Talc and Garnets.
2. Marble is used by sculptors.
3. Valuable deposits of gold and lead.

24

Foliated Metamorphic Rocks

-Have wavy layers that are caused by minerals with flat crystals that form long axes perpendicular to the pressure.
- Slate derived from Shale, and Geniss derived from Granite.

25

Non-Foliated Metamorphic Rocks.

-Lack mineral grains with long axes in one direction.
-Form minerals that have blocky crystal shapes.
-Quartzite derived from Sandstone, and Marble derived from Limestone.

26

What do rocks that undergo weathering and erosion become?

Sedimentary rock.

27

What are the 3 processes by which sediments become sedimentary rocks?

1. Deposition.
2. Burial.
3. Lithification.

28

What are the 2 forces that cause sedimentary rocks to be transformed into metamorphic rocks?

1. Heat
3. Pressure.

29

What are the 3 processes that transform metamorphic rock into igneous rock.

1. Melting.
2. Cooling.
3. Crystallization.

30

Which processes typically take place under the Earth's surface?

a. Melting.
b. Cooling.
c. Crystallizing.
d. Heat and Pressure.

31

Which processes typically take place at or above the Earth's surface?

a. Weathering.
b. Erosion.
c. Deposition.
d. Lithification.
e. Cooling.
f. Crystallizing.

32

On what scale does the rock cycle operate?

Large layers of rock.