Unit 2 - VI. Regions of the Vertebral Column: Lumbar Region (Just Quizzies) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 - VI. Regions of the Vertebral Column: Lumbar Region (Just Quizzies) Deck (87):
1

What is the generic shape of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

reniform or kidney-shaped

2

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

the vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height

3

What is the direction of the normal lumbar curve?

anterior or lordotic

4

What is the effect of aging on the vertebral body of a lumbar vertebrae?

decrease in height, increase in circumference

5

How many synovial joint surfaces are present at the typical lumbar vertebral body?

none

6

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

six

7

How many synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

none

8

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

two

9

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are on a typical lumbar vertebral body?

four

10

What joint classifications will be observed at the vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

11

What muscles may attach to a typical lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major and psoas minor

12

Psoas minor will only attach to the vertebral body of which segments?

T12, L1

13

What is the name given to ligaments that attach the vertebral body to articular process?

transforaminal ligaments

14

What are the types of transforaminal ligaments?

superior transforaminal, middle transforaminal and inferior transforaminal ligaments

15

What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

corporotransverse ligaments

16

What corporotransverse ligaments are identified?

superior corporotransverse and inferior corporotransverse ligaments

17

What are the types of Hofmann ligaments?

anterior Hofmann ligaments, posterior Hofmann ligaments, lateral Hofmann ligaments and proximal root sleeve ligaments

18

Hofmann ligaments are identified in which regions along the vertebral column?

cervical-upper thoracic region and lumbar region

19

Cervical-upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to segments above

20

What is the highest level known to demonstrate Hofmann ligaments?

C6

21

What is the proposed function of the cervical-upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments?

resist caudal movement of the dural sac;
resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord

22

Lumbar Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to lower segmental levels

23

What is the proposed function of the lumbar Hofmann ligaments?

resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

24

What is the proposed function of the proximal root sleeve ligament?

resist displacement of the peripheral nerve system in the intervertebral foramen

25

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

overlap of the laminae, shingling, diminishes;
overlap of spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes

26

What part of the central nerve system is present in the lumbar spine?

the conus medullaris is typically present in the vertebral foramen of L1

27

What part of the peripheral nerve system is present in the lumbar spine?

the cauda equina is typically present in the vertebral foramina of L2-L4

28

Beginning with the L1 tranverse process, what is the generic direction and relative length of each succeeding lumbar transverse process?

each transverse process is directed straight lateral and increases in length from L1-L3; L4 then begins to decrease in length

29

What is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar transverse process?

accessory process

30

Congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process results in what feature?

styloid process

31

A styloid process occurs with what frequency and as a result of what condition?

7% occurrence as a result of congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process

32

What bony part of a cervical transverse process is lacking at the lumbar transverse process?

the costotransverse bar

33

What ligament(s) will attach to the lumbar accessory process?

mammillo-accessory ligament

34

What parts of a vertebra are attached via the mammilo-accessory ligament?

the mammillary process and accessory process of the same segment

35

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

36

What muscle(s) attach to the lumbar accessory process?

longissimus thoracis and intertransversarii

37

What ligament attaches the twelfth rib to the transverse process of L1?

the lumbocostal ligament

38

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

psoas major, quadratus lumborum, longissimus thoracis, rotator brevis, rotator longus and intertransversarii

39

Which transversospinalis muscle group attaches to the typical lumbar transverse process?

rotators

40

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

the lumbocostal, mammillo-accessory and intertransverse ligaments

41

What are the posterior elements of the vertebra?

zygapophysis, lamina and spinous process

42

What are the anterior elements of the vertebra?

vertebral body and pedicle

43

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM); typically concave

44

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD); significant convexity

45

What is the name given to the projection on the lumbar superior articular facet?

mammillary process

46

What muscle(s) will attach to the mammillary process?

multifidis and intertransversarii

47

What ligament will attach to the lumbar superior articular process and transverse process?

mammillo-accessory ligament

48

What ligament will attach to the lumbar mammillary process and accessory process?

mammillo-accessory ligament

49

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

50

What additional ligaments are said to attach to lumbar articular processes?

transforaminal ligaments

51

How many synovial joints are present on a typical lumbar vertebra?

four

52

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in children?

the zygapophysis lies in the coronal plane

53

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in adults?

the zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane for L1/L2, L2/L3 and L3/L4;
the zygapophysis lies in the coronal planefor L4/L5 and L5/S1

54

What names are given to the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane?

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

55

What is the name(s) of the condition in which the typical lumbar spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's syndrome or "kissing spines"

56

What is Baastrup's syndrome?

elongation of the lumbar spinous process as a result of aging

57

What muscles will attach to the typical lumbar spinous process?

latissimus dorsi, serratus posterior inferior, iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis, spinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis

58

What is the appearance of the fifth lumbar vertebral body from the lateral view?

anterior height is greater than posterior height by several millimeters; it appears to form a wedge on a lateral X-ray view

59

How many synovial joint surfaces are present at the fifth lumbar vertebral body?

none

60

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are present on the L5 vertebral body?

four

61

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of the fifth lumbar?

six

62

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of L5?

two

63

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of L5?

four

64

What joint classifications will be observed at the vertebral body of the fifth lumbar?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

65

What muscle(s) attach to the fifth lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major

66

What characteristic of the L1-L4 pedicle may be used to differentiate it from the L5 segment? Be specific and complete as the difference(s) on a segment from each group.

On cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is apparent on a L1-L4 segment.
At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle and lamina-pedicle junction

67

What is the generic direction and length of the fifth lumbar transverse process?

it is directed straight lateral and is the shortest of all lumbar transverse processes

68

What accounts for the shortness of the L5 transverse process?

the hip/innominate bones diminish the available space in the transverse plane

69

What muscle(s) attach to the fifth lumbar accessory process?

longissimus thoracis

70

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

psoas major, quadratus lumborum, longissimus thoracis, rotator brevis, rotator longus and intertransversarii

71

What ligaments traditionally attach to the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

lumbosacral, iliolumbar and mammillo-accessory ligaments

72

What is the reported angulation and X-ray appearance of the fifth lumbar articular facets?

they lie in the vertical plane and are coronal facets

73

What is the orientation of the fifth lumbar superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM); typically concave

74

What is the orientation of the fifth lumbar inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD); significant convexity

75

What muscle(s) will attach to the mammillary process?

multifidis and intertransversarii

76

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in adults?

the zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane for L1/L2, L2/L3, and L3/L4;
the zygapophysis lies in the coronal plane for L4/L5 and L5/S1

77

What names are given to the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane?

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

78

Define or describe joint tropism.

the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane

79

What is the name(s) of the condition in which the L5 spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's syndrome or "kissing spines"

80

What is Baastrup's syndrome?

elongation of the lumbar spinous process as a result of aging

81

What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the L5 spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexion produces pain?

Knife Clasp Syndrome

82

What is Knife Clasp Syndrome?

The congenital condition in which the L5 spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida and dorsiflexion produces pain

83

What muscles will attach to the fifth lumbar spinous process?

latissimus dorsi
iliocostalis lumborum
longissimus thoracis
multifidis
rotator longus
rotator brevis
interspinalis

84

How many synovial joints are maximally observed at each lumbar vertebra?

L1-L5 = four each

85

How many joints are traditionally observed at each lumbar vertebral body?

L1-L5 = six each

86

What is the superior articular facet orientation at each lumbar vertebra?

L1-L5 = backward, upward, medial (BUM)

87

What is the inferior articular facet orientation at each lumbar vertebra?

L1-L5 = forward, downward, lateral (FoLD)