Unit 2: Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Earth/Environmental Science > Unit 2: Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2: Vocabulary Deck (25):
1

Mineral

A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.

2

Magma

Hot fluid or semi fluid. Material below or within the Earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rocks are formed by cooling. Inside.

3

Luster

A gentle sheen or soft glow, especially that of a partly reflective surface. The way a mineral reflects light.

4

Ore

A naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be profitably extracted.

5

Igneous Rock

Formed through the cooling and solidification of magma and lava. Obsidian, Pumice, and Gabbro.

6

Extrusive Rock

Formed from lava exiting the volcano and cooling quickly.

7

Mafic

Relating to an igneous rock that contains a group of dark-colored minerals, composed chiefly of magnesium and iron. Basalt, and Gabbro.

8

Porphyritic

Having distinct crystals in a relatively fine-grained base.

9

Kimberlite

A rare, blue-tinged, coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock sometimes containing diamonds, found especially in South Africa and Siberia.

10

Clastic

Rocks composed of broken pieces of older rocks.

11

Lithification

Where fresh deposited loose grains of sediment are connected into rock.

12

Lava

When hot or molten semi-fluid rock erupted from a volcano or solid rock. Out.

13

Intrusive

Formed when magma inside the volcano cools slowly. Gabbro, Granite, and Diorite.

14

Felsic

Igneous rock that contains a group of light-colored silicate minerals, including feldspar, feldspathoid, quartz, and muscovite.

15

Pegmatite

A coarsely crystalline granite or other igneous rock with crystals several centimeters to several meters in length.

16

Sediment

Particulate matter that is carried by water or wind and deposited on the surface of the land or the bottom of a body of water, and may in time become consolidated into rock.

17

Deposition

The deposit of weathered sediment into a new location,

18

Cementation

Hardening and welding of clastic sediments by the precipitation of mineral matter in pore spaces.

19

Bedding

A sedimentary structure in which there is an upwards graduation from coarser to finer material, caused by the deposition of a heterogeneous (diverse) suspension of particles.

20

Porosity

A measure of how much of a rock is open space.

21

Non-Foliated

When metamorphic rocks do not have a layered or banded appearance.

22

Rock cycle

An idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the Earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, remelting, and further-.

23

Graded Bedding

Indicate sediment deposited deposited underwater by turbid flow. Coarse-grained sediment at the bottom, finer towards the top.

24

Evaporite

A natural salt or mineral deposit left after the evaporation of a body of water.

25

Foliated

Metamorphic rocks whose minerals are squeezed together under high pressure and arranged in wavy layers or bands.