Unit 2-Waves and Radiation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2-Waves and Radiation Deck (53):
1

What are the two types of waves?

Transverse and Longitudinal

2

How do the particles move relative to the direction of travel in transverse waves?

At right angled

3

How do the particles move relative to the direction of travel in longitudinal waves?

They move Parallel to the direction of the travel

4

What is the definition of frequency and its unit of measurement?

The number of waves per second, Hertz(Hz)

5

What is the definition of wavelength and its unit of measurement?

The distance from one point on a wave to the corresponding point on the next wave, Metres(m)

6

What is the definition of amplitude and its unit of measurement?

The height of a wave from middle to top, Metres(m)

7

What is the definition of period and its unit of measurement?

The time for one complete wave to pass a point, Seconds(s)

8

What is the definition of wave speed and its unit of measurement?

The speed of the wave, (m/s)

9

How do you work out the period?

T=1/f

10

Wave equation?

v=fλ

11

Speed equation?

d=vt

12

What is diffraction?

Diffraction is the bending of waves round objects

13

How loud is a normal conversation?

60dbB

14

What is refraction?

When light passes between two mediums

15

What happens to light when it passes from a high density medium to a low density medium?

The waves speed up

16

What happens to light when it passes from a low density medium to a high density medium?

The waves slow down

17

A convex lens..

Converges light

18

A concave lens...

Diverges light

19

Power of a lens equation?

P=1/f

20

Name the different waves of the electromagnetic spectrum in order from lowest frequency?

Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible light, Ultraviolet, X-ray and Gamma rays

21

In the electromagnetic spectrum, as the frequency increases....

The wavelength decreases

22

Name 1 example for the following categories for Radio waves: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS-Transmitters
Application-Communication
Detector-TV Aerials
PH-Cancer, leukaemia and other disorders

23

Name 1 example for the following categories for Microwaves: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS-Microwave ovens, Stars, mobile phones
Application-Communication, radars
Detector-Radar detector dishes, diode probe
PH-Heating of body tissue, cataracts

24

Name 1 example for the following categories for Infrared waves: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS-The sun, remote controls, heat emitting objects
Application-heat source, night vision cameras, medical diagnostics
Detector-Thermometer, thermopile, phototransistor
PH-Sun stroke, dehydration

25

Name 1 example for the following categories for Visible light: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS-The sun, light bulbs
Application-optical fibres, medical treatment
Detector-eye, photodiodes, LDR, phototransistors
PH-Blindness

26

Name 1 example for the following categories for Ultraviolet rays: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS-The sun, UV lamps
Application-Helps body produce Vitamin D, disinfectant, dental treatment
Detector-Some materials fluoresce, UV photodiode
PH-Skin Cancer

27

Name 1 example for the following categories for X-rays: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS- fast moving electrons colliding with metal targets, x-ray machine
Application-Medical imaging and diagnostic, analysis of atoms structures
Detector-X-ray darken photographic film, Geiger-Muller tube and counter
PH-severe burns, cancer, leukaemia, and cataracts

28

Name 1 example for the following categories for Gamma Rays: typical source, application, detector, possible hazards.

TS- Radioactive substances, nuclear reactors
Application-Medical diagnostic, sterilisations of medical instruments
Detector- Geiger-Muller tube and counter
PH-Radiation poisoning

29

What are the three types of radiation and their Greek sign?

Alpha ∝
Beta β
Gamma γ

30

What is Alpha radiation?

Alpha radiation is a helium nucleus made up of two protons and two neutrons.

4
He
2

31

What is Beta radiation?

Beta radiation is high speed electrons and is negatively charged

32

What is Gamma radiation?

Gamma radiation is gamma rays which are apart of the electromagnetic spectrum.

33

What can alpha radiation be absorbed by?

5 cm of a piece of paper

34

What can beta radiation be absorbed by?

Few millimetres of aluminium

35

What can gamma radiation be absorbed by?

A few centimetres of the lead or a few metres of concrete

36

Which natural sources give off radiation?

Rocks and soil, radon gases but particularly from granite, carbon potassium irons in our body, cosmic rays from outer space

37

Name some artificial sources of radiation

X-ray machines, radionuclides, nuclear waste from power stations, fallout from nuclear weapons testing

38

What are some medical applications for radiation?

X-rays, scans, cancer treatment,

39

What are some industrial applications for radiation?

detecting leaks, quality insuring welding,

40

What is the equation for absorbed dose?

D=E/m

41

What is the equation for equivalent dose?

H=DWr

42

What is the definition of half life?

The half life is the time taken for the activity of a radioactive source for the half of his previous value

43

What are the two types of nuclear reactions

Fission and fusion

44

What are the two types of nuclear fission

Induced fission and spontaneous fission

45

What is induced fission?

Induced fission is when a reaction is started when a slow neutron collides with a uranium nucleus making it unstable

46

Explain the process of an uncontrolled fission reaction?

The neutrons released by the first reaction collide with other uranium 235, which releases more energy and more neutrons, causing an uncontrolled reaction.

47

What is nuclear fusion?

Nuclear fusion is when two or more nuclei combine to form an element with different mass numbers. This is the opposite of nuclear fission.

48

Explain the process to use to obtain energy from nuclear power.

The heat released by the nuclear reaction is used to produce steam in the heat exchanger, this steam is used to turn the turbine which then turns the generator producing electrical energy.

49

What are some positives for using nuclear fuel?

Nuclear power stations produce a large amount of energy for a small amount of fuel. There are no CO2 and SO2 emissions from power stations.

50

What are some of the arguments against nuclear fuel?

Nuclear waste has to be stored securely for a very long time.

51

What are some biological effects of radiation?

Radiation can kill or damage cells. If the DNA of the cell is altered it can grow into a tumour

52

What are some environmental hazards of radiation?

All living things plants, animals as well as humans are affected by radiation. Very high doses can be fatal, large doses can cause sickness and mutations

53

What are the precautions you should take when handling radioactive sources?

Always use tongs or a special gloves when moving a source – never use their hands.
Arrange the source so that the radiation window points away from the body.
Never point the source at your eyes.
Wash your hands immediately after performing any experiment that involves radioactive sources