Unit 2A: Assoc. Areas-klinfelters Syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2A: Assoc. Areas-klinfelters Syndrome Deck (34):
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Association areas

Involved with higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. They interpret, integrate, and act on the information processed by the sensory areas. Occupies 75% of the cerebral cortex, mostly in the left hemisphere.

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Wernicke's area

Gives people the ability to comprehend and interpret both spoken and written language.

2

Broca's area

In the frontal lobe; usually in the left hemisphere; directs the muscle movement involved in producing speech or language expression.

3

Angular gyrus

Interprets written word into internal monologue (like when you read). Located in the occipital and temporal lobes.

4

Aphasia

Impairment in producing and understanding language, caused by damage to brocas and wernickes areas. If wernickes is affected, one may sound fluent but lack syntax and grammar.

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Apraxia

Inability to organize movements and a disorder of motor planning.

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Agnosia

Difficulty processing sensory input. One can't identify things or people, can't recognize sounds, smells, touch. Can't recognize those they know or things they know.

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Alexia

Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning of written or printed words and sentences. Inability to read and understand what you've read.

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Brain plasticity

The brains capacity for modification as evident in brain recognition following damage(especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development. Brain plasticity helps firm, learn, and comprehend the new material. Forms new neural networks. Body can replace things like hemispheres.

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Phantom limb

When one loses a limb but feels that it is still there.

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Phones gage

Left frontal lobe was damaged-separated from his limbic system. He became impulsive and animalistic.

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Split brain

Cutting the connecting fibers(corpus callosum) between them. Separated the hemispheres. Roger Sperry was the first to try. Usually done to those with epilepsy.

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Corpus callosum

The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

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Brain lateralization

Also known as hemisphere specialization. How each hemisphere specializes in specific things. Deals with linear processing, analytical, and reasoning.

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Left hemisphere

Deals with the right side of the body. Deals with logic and calculation. Deals with present and relates to past (or our ability to talk about it).

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Right hemisphere

Controls the left side of the body. Deals with intuition, imagination, visual perception, the holistic perspective and deals with present and relates to future. Perception of spatial and nonverbal concepts.

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Endocrine system

The body's "slow" chemical communication system; secrets hormones into the bloodstream.

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Hormones

Chemical messengers produced in one tissue and affect another.

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Pituitary gland

Controlled by the hypothalamus. Is the "master gland"-controls other glands. Regulates growth.

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Adrenal glands

Secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine which help arouse the body in time of stress. Deal with fight or flight along with sympathetic.

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Thyroid glands

Secretes hormones that regulate growth and development through the rate of metabolism. Tells us how our body uses it's energy. Hypo-slow/hyper-fast thyroidism.

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Sex glands

Ovaries: release estrogen
Tested: release testosterone

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Genetics

The application of the principles in evolutionary theory to the study of behavior. Contain segments of DNA that produce proteins that control human traits(genes)

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Traits

Distinctive characteristics or behavior patterns determined by genetics.

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Dominant traits

More likely to be expressed in offspring

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Recessive trait

Less likely to be expressed in offspring.

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Genotype

All possible combinations of ones genes.

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Phenotype

An observable result in characteristics of an individual. Visual/what you actually get.

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Identical twins

Share the same genetic material. Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits.

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Thomas Bouchard

Studies identical twins raised apart.

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Down syndrome

A defect involving chromosomes. Usually have broad or flat faces, short, stubby fingers, and ski fold at their eyes(makes them look Asian).

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Huntington's Chorea

A hereditary disease marked by degeneration of the brain cells; the muscles become impaired and begin to degenerate.

32

Turner's syndrome

Only one x-chromosome(23rd pair), causing developmental abnormalities and infertility. Only in women, unusual shortness, webbed neck's, differences in sexual development.

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Klinfelter's syndrome

Extra X-chromosome, only men, minimal sexual development, feminine characteristics, extreme introverts, have small testicles.