Unit 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (51):
1

Absorbed

The light which is taken into a plant leaf by pigments

2

Aesthetic

Branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty and art

3

Agriculture

The process of producing feed and other desirable products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals

4

Allele

A form of a gene - in pea plants the gene for petal colour has 2 different alleles giving either pink or white petals. Alleles are usually written as 'A' or 'a'

5

Animal welfare

Physical and psychological well-being of animals. The term animal welfare can also mean human concern for animal welfare. Welfare is measured by indicators including behaviour/physiology/longevity/reproduction.

6

Annual weed

Plant which grows/flowers/sets seeds/ dies within the space of 1 year.

7

Anthropomorphism

The tendency to attribute to animals human qualities such as mental/social/emotional characteristics.

8

Artificial selection

Intentional breeding controlled by humans for particular traits/characteristics

9

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate, coenzyme used as an energy carrier in the cells of all known organisms.

10

Biodiversity

Degree of variation of life forms within a given species/ecosystem/biome/planet.

11

Biological yield

Royal plant biomass

12

Bottleneck

An evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population/species is killed/prevented from reproducing

13

Calvin cycle

A series of biochemical reactions that makes place in the chloroplast and does not require light

14

Carnivore

Animal which eats meat and which derives its energy requirements from a diet consisting mainly/exclusively of animal tissue whether through predation/scavenging

15

Chlorophyll

The green pigment which is found in almost all plants/green algae. It absorbs the light which is essential for photosynthesis.

16

Chloroplast

The photosynthetic unit of a plant cell, containing all the chlorophyll

17

Colonial

Relating to a colony

18

Competition

An interaction/struggle between organisms/species for a resource such as food/territory/mates, in which the fitness/numbers of one is reduced by the presence of another

19

Co-operative hunting

Animals such as lions hunt as a group to increase their chances of successfully killing prey

20

Crossbreeding

A crossbreed usually refers to an animal with purebred parents of 2 different breeds/varieties/populations. Crossbreeding refers to the process of breeding such an animal, often with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages/producing an animal with hybrid vigour

21

Cross pollination

When pollen is delivered to a flower of a different plant

22

Cultivar

Plant/group of plants selected for a particular characteristic

23

Degradation

Process by which ecosystems or habitats are broken down/fragmented

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Economic yield

The mass of desired product

25

Endemic

An organism is unique to a defined ecological/geographical location such as an island/nation/other zone/habitat. For example, lemurs are endemic to Madagascar - they are not native anywhere else.

26

Ethogram

A catalogue/inventory of all behaviours/actions exhibited by an animal

27

Eukaryote

An organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes

28

Extinction

The complete loss of a species from the planet

29

Food security

The ability of human populations to access food of sufficient quality and quantity

30

Fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities/fragmentation in an organism's environment/habitat, causing population fragmentation

31

Fungicide

A chemical compound/biological organism used to kill/inhibit fungi/fungal spores

32

G-3-P

Glycerate-3-phosphate, which is a substance found in the calvin cycle

33

Genetic diversity

Comprises the genetic variation represented by the number and frequency of alleles in a population

34

Genetic uniformity

When the genes/alleles of a population are similar and show little variation

35

Genome

The entirety on an organism's hereditary variation

36

Genotype

A statement of an organism's alleles for a particular characteristic usually given as symbols - a pea plant could have the genotype cc if it were homozygous for pink petal colour or the genotype Cc if it were heterozygous for pink colour

37

Harvest index

A measure of yield, calculated by dividing the dry mass of economic yield by the dry mass of biological yield

38

Herbicide

A chemical compound used to kill unwanted plants.

39

Herbivore

An organism adapted to eat plant-based foods, such as deer/cows/sheep

40

Heterozygotes

Having 2 different alleles for a characteristic - a pea plant heterozygous for petal colour has two different petal colour alleles 'Cc'

41

Hierarchy

An organisation arranged in a graded order with member(s) at the top who are dominant over subordinate individuals

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Homozygotes

Having 2 identical alleles for a characteristic - a pea plant homozygous for petal colour has two identical colour alleles, both pink 'CC' or both white 'cc'

43

Immigration

Movement into a country/area to take up permanent residence

44

Inbreeding

The reproduction from mating 2 genetically related parents

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Inbreeding depression

The reduced fitness in a given population as the result of breeding of related individuals

46

Insecticide

A chemical compound used to kill insects

47

Invasive

Introduced/non-indigenous/non-native species that adversely affect the habitats they invade economically/environmentally/ecologically

48

Keystone species

A species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. An ecosystem may experience a dramatic shift if a keystone species is removed, even though that species was a small part of the ecosystem by measures of biomass or productivity

49

Legume

A plant which is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen to synthesis amino acids which can then be built up to plant proteins. This is due to the symbiotic relationship with bacteria in the root nodules of these plants.

50

Light reaction

The photosynthetic process in which solar energy is harvested and transferred into the chemical bonds of ATP; can only occur in light

51

Livestock

1 or more domesticated animal raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food/fibre/labour. The term does not usually involved farmed fish