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1

determinism

some single cause determines other aspects of life

2

what does technological determinism not focus on?

the content of messages

3

what are the 4 media epochs?

tribal, literate, print and electronic

4

highlight of tribal epoch?

oral storytelling, hearing is dominant

5

highlight of literate epoch

creation of phonetic alphabet changes communication away from face to face. Sight becomes more important

6

highlight of print

printing press and increase of value of visual perception

7

highlight of electronic

ability to communicate across vast distances: revival of oral tradition

8

medium is the...

message, massage, mass-age

9

media affects: (4)

ways of doing things, learning, relationships and consciousness

10

hot media

passive, complete sensory data where less involvement is required.

11

examples of hot media

tv, photos

12

cool media

less information given and more participation required to fill in sensory gaps

13

examples of cool media

class discussion

14

3 critiques of technological determinism

lack of empirical support, hyperbolic speculation, overly deterministic

15

what is cultivation theory

a theory of the effects of media on social reality

16

who is most relevent with cultivation theory

george gerbner

17

how is cultivation theory discussed in television

the connection between violence on television and actual violence or tolerance for violence

18

cultivation

the cumulative process by which televsion fosters belief about social reality

19

synthetic reality

refers to the inaccurate view of the world resulting from long term exposure to television.

20

what are the two mechanisms that explain how cultivation works?

resonance and mainstreaming

21

resonance

the process by which heavy viewing of televison affects viewers who have first hand experience with violence. amplifies effect on viewers

22

mainstreaming

the process by which heavy viewing of television results in a similarity of perspective among a diverse group of viewers. homogenizes views within a society

23

what are the 3 b's

blurring, blending and bending

24

blurring

tv blurs the traditional distinction in world views

25

blending

tv blends diverse realities into a single, homogenous mainstream view

26

bending

tv bends mainstream view to serve the institutional interests of tv sponsors

27

6 assumptions of Cultivation Theory

1. TV forms the cultural mainstream
2. television is unique
3. TV cultivates broad assumptions about life (mean world syndrome)
4. television is a medium of conservative socialization
5. Observable effects of tv on culture
6. new technologies extend televisions mainstream effect

28

critique of cultivation theory

weak support for the theory, incompatabilities within the theory, neglects diversity of audiences, confusing correlation and cause

29

what is critical theory

critique (evaluate/assess/make judgements about) prevailing social practices that create or uphold disadvantage, inequity and or oppression

30

what is the motive for critical theory

social reform

31

4 critical theories

marxist, feminist, critical race theory and queer theory

32

marxist analysis

pinpoints the root of social conflict to the unequal distribution of wealth in society

33

2 classes of society according to marx

bourgeoisie and proletariat

34

ideology

refers to common sense systems of belief belonging to any class or social group, often perceived as natural

35

Antonio Gramsci

italian philosopher who was the leader of the communist part of italy and was arrested a jailed by mussolini.Worte about the role of ideology producing institutions "dominant dispensaires of ideas"

36

superstructure

the ideology producing institutions (art, philosophy, law)

37

base

the economic foundation of society (means of production, tools, land)

38

hegemony

hegemony is he power or dominancy that one social group holds over others...a method for gaining and maintaining power

39

coercion:

threat or use of force by repressive state apparatus (army, police, prison)

40

hegemony fails when

social resistance is stronger than dominant ideology

41

5 dualisms of feminist theory

1. Liberal Feminism (reasons and emotion)
2. Socialist Feminism (public and private)
3. Radical Feminism (nature and nurture)
4. Psychoanalytic Feminism (subject and object)
5.Cultural Feminism (mind and body)

42

in dualism, one term is typically

valued more highly than the other

43

queer theory came about in what years

1990s

44

queer theory explores

the way in which heterosexuality is constructed as the norm and ways in which media has limited representaitons of LGBTQ+ community

45

key idea of queer theory

identity is socially constructed

46

3 ways that queer theory is socially constructed

identities are:
1. Contextual: specific to time and place
2. Produced by certain forms of knowledge: science, religion, media
3. Performed: identity is something we do, not who we are

47

critical race theory

acknowledges how racism is engrained in societal systems and structures rather than in individuals

48

CRT emerged in

1970s

49

5 Main Premises of cRT

1. racism is ordinary: not unusual or and aberration. hard to address, since it is not acknowledged. “color-blind racism vs. Overt racism”

2. society privileges whiteness over “of colour”. there is advantage to whites.

3. race is a social construct. it is not a given identity, it is a product of social thought

4. intersectional analysis: no person has a single easily stated, unitary identity

5. voice of colour thesis: similar to standpoint, those born into a social group can achieve unique understanding about oppression