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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (50):
1

what is health?

state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

2

healthy life style (5)

balanced varied diet
exercise
proper shelter
enough sleep
good hygiene

3

disease

disorder or malfunction of the mind or body which leads away from good health (have many causes)

4

localized

single place where disease happen, can pinpoint

5

systemic

travel through the body, cannot pinpoint

6

proactive

preventing the disease
(ex. vaccinations, avoidance, sanitazation)

7

reactive

the treatment, dealing with the symptoms

8

contagious diseases caused by

caused by pathogens
-viral
-bacterial
-fungal
-protist

9

non-contagious/non-infectious caused by

Behavioral:
-nutrient deficiency
-low-activity conditions
-diet
-sleep deprivation
-stress
Physiological:
-malfunction - tissue, cells, organs
-genetic (inherited)

10

acute disease

sudden and rapid (days to weeks) (intense) (disappear quickly)
ex. flu

11

chronic disease

long term (months to year)
ex. heart disease

12

pathogens

virus
bacteria
fungus
protists
parasites
predators

13

sources

environmental (soil, water, air)
food
touch (people fluid) (surfaces)
vectors (insects, snails)

14

route of infection

inhale
contact (cut)
ingest
absorption
injection

15

immune system

system that fights off pathogens
tells difference between pathogens - react accordingly

16

memory cells

remember bad pathogens and react to them

17

pathogens

bad things that affect body
(certain cells only or whole body)

18

method of transmission: droplet contact

respiratory
(cough, sneeze)

19

method of transmission: fecal-oral

eat poop
(water)

20

method of transmission: sexual

sex

21

method of transmission: vector borne

through another organism (snail, mosquito)

22

diabetes: type 1

no insulin produced

23

diabetes: type 2

the receptors do not work so no insulin is produced.

24

insulin

hormone produced by pancreas that wraps around glucose molecules out of the blood and take it where needed

25

parkinson's disease

cause tremor in hand
short term memory

26

skin cancer

epidermis cells divide badly at faster rate and multiply

27

asthma

airways get inflamed, difficult to breathe

28

food preservation

-storage (longer shelf life)
-processed food (increase safety from pathogens & compounds)

29

processes: freezing/blanching

boil for few minutes
ice down fast

30

processes: canning

use pressure cooker (120c)

31

processes: drying

loss of moisture
slow/stop bacteria

32

negatives of processed food

change in color, texture investment, time, energy

33

enrichment

added more of what is already there

34

fortified

added something new

35

nutrients

chemical components the body need to grow, develop, and use to repair itself

36

energy

ability to do work

37

metabolism

rate in which the body break nutrients down

38

macronutrients

big things
required in big amounts
-carbohydrate (glucose)
-fats/lipids (fatty acid chains and glycerol)
-protein (amino acids)

39

calories

C = kilocalories - 2 000 000 c
c = calories - 2 000 c

40

saturated fats

sticks to each other easily
straight glycerols
ex. butter (should avoid)

41

unsaturated fats

don't stick to each other easily
bent glycerol because of double bonds

42

micronutrients

needed in small portions
-electrolytes (salt)
-enzymes
-vitamins

43

Na+

salt
~500 mg/day

44

K+

potassium

45

Ca2+

calcium

46

Mg2+

magnesium

47

Cl-

chloride - help break down food in stomach

48

biocarbonate

HCO3-

49

chyme

digest food in small intestine
2 Ph scale

50

why add nutrient to food?

-tastier
-MSD - taste enhancer
increase shelf life