unit 3 Flashcards Preview

SOC100 > unit 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in unit 3 Deck (48):
1

group


a collection of individuals who interact and communicate, share goals and norms, and who have a subjective awareness as “we.”

2

dyad

a group consisting of two people.

3

triad

a group consisting of three people.

4

coalition

an alliance formed by two or more individuals or groups against another individual or one or more groups to achieve certain ends.

5

primary group

a group characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships.

6

secondary groups

a group that is relatively large in number and not as intimate or long in duration as a primary group.

7

expressive needs

needs for intimacy, companionship, and emotional support.

8

instrumental needs

emotionally neutral, task-oriented (goal-oriented) needs.

9

reference groups

any group (to which one may or may not belong) used by the individual as a standard for evaluating her or his attitudes, values, and behaviors.

10

Attribution theory

the principle that dispositional attributions are made about others (what the other is “really like”) under certain conditions, such as out-group membership.

11

attribution error

error made in attributing the causes for someone’s behavior to their membership in a particular group, such as a racial group.

12

social network

a set of links between individuals or other social units such as groups or organizations.

13

bureaucracy

a type of formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.

14

coercive organization

organizations for which membership is involuntary; examples are prisons and mental hospitals.

15

deindividuation

the feeling that one’s self has merged with a group.

16

formal organization

a large secondary group organized to accomplish a complex task or set of tasks.

17

group size effect

the effect upon the person of groups of varying sizes.

18

groupthink

the tendency for group members to reach a consensus at all costs.

19

ideal type

model rarely seen in reality but that defines the principal characteristics of a social form.

20

McDonaldization

the increasing and ubiquitous presence of the fast-food model in vast numbers of organizations.

21

organizational ritualism

a situation in which rules become ends in themselves rather than means to an end.

22

polarization shift

the tendency for group members, after discussion and interaction, to engage in riskier behavior than they would while alone.

23

reference group

any group (to which one may or may not belong) used by the individual as a standard for evaluating her or his attitudes, values, and behaviors.

24

risky shift

the tendency for group members, after discussion and interaction, to engage in riskier behavior than they would while alone.

25

total institution

an organization cut off from the rest of society in which individuals are subject to strict social control.

26

utilitarian organization

a profit or nonprofit organization that pays its employees salaries or wages.

27

altruistic suicide


the type of suicide that can occur when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces.

28

anomic suicide

the type of suicide occurring when there are disintegrating forces in the society that make individuals feel lost or alone.

29

anomie

the condition existing when social regulations (norms) in a society break down.

30

crime

one form of deviance; specifically, behavior that violates criminal laws.

31

criminology

the study of crime from a scientific perspective.

32

deviance

behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms.

33

deviant identity

the definition a person has of himself or herself as a deviant.

34

deviant community

groups that are organized around particular forms of social deviance.

35

differential association theory

theory that interprets deviance as behavior one learns through interaction with others.

36

egoistic suicide

the type of suicide that occurs when people feel totally detached from society.

37

elite deviance

the wrongdoing of powerful individuals and organizations.

38

gender-based violence

violence various forms of violence associated with unequal power relationships between men and women.

39

hate crime

an assault or other malicious act (including crimes against property) motivated by various forms of bias, including that based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnic and national origin, or disability.

40

labeling theory

behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms.

41

master status

some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person’s identity.

42

medicalization of deviance

explanations of deviant behavior that interpret deviance as the result of individual pathology or sickness.

43

racial profiling

the use of race alone as a criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of having committed a crime.

44

social control

the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations.

45

social control agents

those who regulate and administer the response to deviance, such as the police or mental health workers.

46

social control theory

theory that explains deviance as the result of the weakening of social bonds.

47

stigma

an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited.

48

structural strain theory

a theory that interprets deviance as originating in the tensions that exist in society between cultural goals and the means people have to achieve those goals.