Flashcards in Unit 3: Agriculture And Industry Deck (67):
2 main challenges for challenges of farming in developing countries.
- farmers are pressured to grow food for export instead of direct consumption
- farmers must feed and increasing number of people.
Late 20th century developing countries needed to produce more food for
- a growing population
- urban residents that can't grow their own food.
According to ____________ ______________ there are two ways to increase production.
Boserup's two ways for increasing production were...
- new farming methods
- land is left to fallow for shorter periods
Previously cultivated land is left un cultivated for a season or longer so that it can regrow vegetation and regain nutrients.
Types of fallowing
Land is cultivated for 2 years then left to fallow for 29 years allowing the trees and forestry to grow back.
The land is cultivated for 8 years then left to fallow for 10 years which allows bushes, shrubs and some trees to grow back.
The land is cultivated for 2 years then left to fallow for 2 years allowing some wild grasses to grow back.
Land is used every year and is switched with legumes and roots.
Land is used multiple times a year, no fallowing.
What happened to the amount of fallowing time as the number of people increases?
What is shifting cultivation?
Cleared fields are utilized for a couple years then left to fallow for 20 years or more.
How much people does shifting cultivation support?
A small population living at a low density.
How do Africana and Asian countries buy agricultural materials?
From other countries
How do farmers in developing countries afford the expensive agricultural resources from other countries?
They sell crops that the developed countries can't grow or don't have at the moment.
What do women in developing countries do in the division between traditional subsistence agriculture and international trade?
Practice subsistence agriculture, grows food for family, in addition to cooking, cleaning, carrying water from wells and also earn from cottage industry since men are jerks and don't share their money with the fam. (Make jewelery, clothes, baked goods and other objects at local market.)
What do men in developing countries do in the division between traditional subsistence agriculture and international trade?
Work for wages either growing crops or export and jobs in distant cities.
Advantage of export crops
- brings in foreign currency which can be used to buy agricultural supplies
Disadvantage of export crops
- more land that is devoted to growing export crops, less for growing crops for domestic consumption,
- rather that helping increase productivity, money generated by exporting of crops may be needed to feed people who switched from subsistence farming to grow export crops
Explain differences between developed and developing countries in food consumption.
Most human derive energy from cereal grains especially wheat, rice and maize. As for protein, in developed counties they have meats and poultry and in developing countries they have grain.
Explain Africa's food supply struggle
- Traditionally the region had supported agriculture
- farmers overplanted
- herd sizes increased
- animals over grazed
- exhausted scarce water sources
- government keeps agricultural prices low
- farmers unable to self for profit
- little incentive to increase production
Understand distinctive challenges for developing countries to increase food supply
Africa faces the greatest challenge in providing enough food for a growing population. Export crops such as drugs are increasingly being grown in some developed countries.
Three major drug crops
- Heroine (Opium)
Where is cocaine mainly produced?
Columbia + Peru & Bolivia
Trade route for cocaine
Columbia to Mexico/Central America to North America
How many people take cocaine or heroine each?
16-17 million people
How many people take marijuana world wide?
140 million people
Where is Heroine mainly produced?
Heroine trade routes
- Afghanistan to CAsia to Russia
- Afghanistan to Iran to Turkey to Balkans (WEurope)
Where is marijuana?
Is cultivation for marijuana expanding?
What are the four factors UN attributes high food price to?
1) Poor weather in main crop growing regions
2) Higher demand especially in China and India
3) Les growth in productivity, less "miracles"
4) use of crops as biofuel instead of crops
Asian carp and Chicago
The Asian carp was bought to North America to stock a fish farm in Arkansas. The fish farm flooded and the carp escaped and became a threat to the rest of the waters in North America. Went into Mississippi and Illinois River. Now approaching Great Lake Michigan. Electric barrier not enough. Only way to stop it is to cut off canal to the Great Lakes. But shutting down of the canal means great economical losses to Chicago. Economy or Environment?
Explain the impact of over production and market access on farming in developed countries.
Because of the efficiency, commercial farmers produce more food than can be consumed.
What is the main problem of farming in developing countries? How is this problem created?
They make too much food. This problem happens because in developed countries, the population does not increase (since it's already developed and the demand stays the same because the people won't just switch ok one resource to another even if the price is low.
4 ways us approaches the problem of over production
1) encourage farmers to not grow foods that there are already an abundance of. Grow useful crops like clover that help with the erosion problems and can also be used to feed livestock.
2) Subsidy- sets a target price for a product if target not reached, government will pay.
3) sell the surplus products to foreign places. International trade.
4) Food stamps to less fortunate
Johann Heinrich con Thünen book
The Isolated State
What two costs do farmers consider when choosing an enterprise?
- cost of land
- cost of transporting products to market
What are the rings in Johann Heinrich Von Thünens model.
City, Horticulture & Dairy, Forestry, Crop Rotation, Enclosed field, Three Field, Grazing
Why does horticulture need to be near city?
Dairy products will ruin
Why forestry needs to be near to city
Requirement for grazing land in Johann Heinrich Von Thünen Model
Lots of land
Cost of ____________cannot exceed __________
Transportation, gross profit
Explain the contribution of expanding exports & farmland to world food supply
Export of food had increased rapidly although only a handful of countries produce enough to be major exporters. Historically, agricultural output was increased by expanding the amount of land that is farmed , but expansion of farmland has slowed in recent decades.
4 strategies to increase world food supply
1) Increase exports from countries with surplus
2) Expanding lad area for agriculture
3) Expanding fishing
4) increasing productivity of land now used for agriculture.
Agricultural products move from..
West hemisphere to east hemisphere
What is leading region for export?
Latin America lead by Brazil and Argentina.
Leading importers of food are
Japan followed by UK, China, Russia
Public Law 480 and parts
Agricultural trade assistance act
Part 1: sale of grain at low interest rate
Part 2: give grants to needy groups of people
Humans are causing land into a desert like condition.
How many acres of land have been degraded around the world?
5 million acres ( 2 million hectares) according to the Earth Policy Institute
What percent Of desertification is caused by agricultural use, deforestation and overgrazing.
Agricultural use: 28%
What happens when dry lands are irrigated by humans?
The land he usually doesn't have a proper draining system, and the roots of the plants that grow there get waterlogged.
Prime agricultural land definition
Most productive farmland
Describe the contribution of fishing to worldwide food supply.
Fish consumption is increasing but accounts for a small percentage of the human diet. Fish production has increased primarily through aquaculture instead of catching live fish.
Cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
Why is this production higher than human consumption?
A large portion of the fish is fed to hogs and poultry
How many major fishing regions are there?
What is the spatial distribution of the major fishing regions?
Seven regions in the Atlantic Ocean, seven regions in the Pacific ocean, three in the Indian and Mediterranean oceans.
Disadvantages of overfishing
-Species declined, harvested faster than they can reproduce
-Fishing remain the same despite population growth
Describe the contribution of higher productivity to the world food supply.
Agricultural productivity has increased sharply, especially through the invention of higher yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizers. Despite advances, Food prices in the early 21st century have been at a record high.
Green revolution definition
Invention and rapid day fusion of more productive agricultural techniques (1780s - 1790s) New higher yield seeds. Expanded use of fertilizer