Flashcards in Unit 3- Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10%) Deck (70):
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
distal terminations of the branches of an axon
Neurotransmitter acting in the brain that helps regulate movement and emotion, related to Parkinson's Disease
A short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
The nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
A peripheral neuron that carries signals from the central nervous system to the target cells
Selectively destroying small clusters of normal or defective cells in the pursuit of Science or Medicine.
is one of the best-understood neurotransmitters. In addition to its role in learning and memory, ACh is the messenger at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. When ACh is released to our muscle cell receptors, the muscle contracts. If ACh transmission is blocked, as happens during some kinds of anesthesia, the muscles cannot contract and we are paralyzed.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs such as the heart.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Principle that a neuron will fire completely if it reaches the threshold or not at all if it does not. It cannot fire at different magnitudes.
-Master gland of the Endocrine system
-Influences the release of hormones in other glands
-Releases hormones that influence growth
-Influence energy, blood pressure, and heart rate.
-Release epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
-Fight or flight response
-Part of the Endocrine system
The body's "slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
A series of x-Ray taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
The sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters.
-Brains own naturally occurring opiates.
-Several types of neurotransmitter molecules similar to morphine in response to pain and vigorous exercise
-"Good feelings" or painkillers
The meeting point between neurons.
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue.
MRI scans show the brains anatomy.
Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
Neurotransmitters that excite which push the neuron to fire
Neurotransmitters that prevent a neuron from reaching action potential
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
The point of attachments to cell membranes for viruses,hormones, or other activators.
An amplified readout of electrical pulses while your brain is at work.
The long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
A neurotransmitter involved with sleep, depression, and memory
Otherwise known as sensory neurons carry information to the brain
Axon fibers connecting the two cerebral cortex
fMRI (Functional MRI)
Produces a live image monitoring blood flow. Shows brain function.
The home of somatosensory processing of sensations in the skin and muscles of the body
Home of the visual processing
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan
Radioactive glucose enters, and reveals a live image of how the brain consumes energy during a given task.
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal core swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
Helps to coordinate movement
border (“limbus”) between the brain’s older parts and the cerebral hemispheres— the two halves of the brain
Influence aggression and fear
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs, they are genetically not closer than brothers and sisters, but they share fetal environment.
Psychologist who started a study on separated twins, measuring their personality, intelligence, heart rate, and brain waves.
Controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
Controls the endocrine system, as well as metabolic functions like libido, body temperature, hunger, and thirst
Controls right side of the body, responsible for logic, speech and mathematical thinking
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
-Controls left side of the body
-spatial tasks, creative tasks, integrating sense of self, detecting emotions
At the rear of frontal lobe that controls voluntary movement.
Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensation.
Involved in the transfer of memories from short term/working memory into long-term memory.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Individual nerve cell
Carry messages from the body's tissues to the brain and spinal cord
Carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to the body's tissues
The brain's internal communication neurons
Railroad worker who received frontal lobe damage, changing his personality. Revealed the part of the brain where emotions are regulated.
Midbrain structure that controls bodily arousal and our ability to focus
Our brain's sensory relay station, receives information from our senses and sends it to the appropriate areas
Our brain's executive functioning center. Responsible for reasoning and emotional control
Area of the brain that allows us to move our muscles to produce speech, damage would lead to difficulty pronouncing words
Complex molecule that contain our genetic makeup