Unit 3- Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3- Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10%) Deck (70):
1

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.

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Action Potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

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Axon Terminal

distal terminations of the branches of an axon

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Dopamine

Neurotransmitter acting in the brain that helps regulate movement and emotion, related to Parkinson's Disease

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Dendrite

A short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body

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Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

The nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord

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Efferent Neurons

A peripheral neuron that carries signals from the central nervous system to the target cells

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Lesion

Selectively destroying small clusters of normal or defective cells in the pursuit of Science or Medicine.

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Acetylcholine

is one of the best-understood neurotransmitters. In addition to its role in learning and memory, ACh is the messenger at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. When ACh is released to our muscle cell receptors, the muscle contracts. If ACh transmission is blocked, as happens during some kinds of anesthesia, the muscles cannot contract and we are paralyzed.

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Autonomic Nervous System

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs such as the heart.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.

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Somatic Nervous System

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.

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All-or-nothing principle

Principle that a neuron will fire completely if it reaches the threshold or not at all if it does not. It cannot fire at different magnitudes.

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Pituitary gland

-Master gland of the Endocrine system
-Influences the release of hormones in other glands
-Releases hormones that influence growth

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Adrenal glands

-Influence energy, blood pressure, and heart rate.
-Release epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine.
-Fight or flight response
-Part of the Endocrine system

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Endocrine System

The body's "slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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CAT scan

A series of x-Ray taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.

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Reuptake

The sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters.

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Endorphins

-Brains own naturally occurring opiates.

-Several types of neurotransmitter molecules similar to morphine in response to pain and vigorous exercise

-"Good feelings" or painkillers

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Synapse

The meeting point between neurons.

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MRI

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue.
MRI scans show the brains anatomy.

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Hormones

Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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Excitatory Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters that excite which push the neuron to fire

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Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters that prevent a neuron from reaching action potential

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Threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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Receptor sites

The point of attachments to cell membranes for viruses,hormones, or other activators.

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EEG

An amplified readout of electrical pulses while your brain is at work.

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Axon

The long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells

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Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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Serotonin

A neurotransmitter involved with sleep, depression, and memory

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Afferent Neurons

Otherwise known as sensory neurons carry information to the brain

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Corpus callosum

Axon fibers connecting the two cerebral cortex

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fMRI (Functional MRI)

Produces a live image monitoring blood flow. Shows brain function.

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Parietal lobe

The home of somatosensory processing of sensations in the skin and muscles of the body

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Occipital lobe

Home of the visual processing

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PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan

Radioactive glucose enters, and reveals a live image of how the brain consumes energy during a given task.

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Temporal Lobe

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

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Brain plasticity

The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

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Medulla

The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.

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Brainstem

The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal core swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.

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Cerebellum

The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.

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Pons

Helps to coordinate movement

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Limbic system

border (“limbus”) between the brain’s older parts and the cerebral hemispheres— the two halves of the brain

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Amygdala

Influence aggression and fear

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Identical Twins

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.

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Fraternal Twins

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs, they are genetically not closer than brothers and sisters, but they share fetal environment.

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Thomas Bouchard

Psychologist who started a study on separated twins, measuring their personality, intelligence, heart rate, and brain waves.

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Wernicke's Area

Controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.

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Hypothalamus

Controls the endocrine system, as well as metabolic functions like libido, body temperature, hunger, and thirst

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Left hemisphere

Controls right side of the body, responsible for logic, speech and mathematical thinking

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Cerebral cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

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Right Hemisphere

-Controls left side of the body
-spatial tasks, creative tasks, integrating sense of self, detecting emotions

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Motor cortex

At the rear of frontal lobe that controls voluntary movement.

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Sensory cortex

Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensation.

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Hippocampus

Involved in the transfer of memories from short term/working memory into long-term memory.

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Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

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Natural selection

The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

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Neuron

Individual nerve cell

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Sensory Neuron

Carry messages from the body's tissues to the brain and spinal cord

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Motor Neuron

Carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to the body's tissues

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Interneurons

The brain's internal communication neurons

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Phineas Gage

Railroad worker who received frontal lobe damage, changing his personality. Revealed the part of the brain where emotions are regulated.

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Reticular formation

Midbrain structure that controls bodily arousal and our ability to focus

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Thalamus

Our brain's sensory relay station, receives information from our senses and sends it to the appropriate areas

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Frontal Lobe

Our brain's executive functioning center. Responsible for reasoning and emotional control

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Broca's Area

Area of the brain that allows us to move our muscles to produce speech, damage would lead to difficulty pronouncing words

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DNA

Complex molecule that contain our genetic makeup

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Genes

Units of heredity that make up the chromosomes