Unit 3- Oncology and the Central Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Unit 3- Oncology and the Central Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 3- Oncology and the Central Nervous System Deck (175):
1

Pathology

Study of disease

2

Cytology

Study of cells

3

Histology

Study of tissues

4

Oncology

Study of abnormal growths, tumors, and cancer

5

Morphology

Study of structure of cells
study of form or development

6

histolysis

destruction of tissue

7

histogenous

made of tissue

8

histoblast

embryonic/immature tissue

9

histocyte

tissue cell

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histoid

resembling tissue

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morph/o

form, shape, or structure

12

meta

change

13

-trophy

development and growth

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-plasia

development and growth

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-genesis

development and growth

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hyper-

above or more than normal

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hypercholesterolemia

high amounts of cholesterol in blood

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hypertoxicity

excessively toxic

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hyperkalemia

high amounts of potassium in blood

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hyperactivity

excessively active

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hyperlipidemia

excess fats in the blood

22

hyperproteinuria

excess protein in urine

23

hypo-

below or less than normal

24

hypocalcemia

low calcium in blood

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hypertrophy

overdevelopment, increase in size

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hyperplasia

the enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells, often as an initial stage in the development of cancer.

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hypergenesis

excessive development

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hypodactylia

fewer than normal fingers or toes

29

hyposensitive

deficient response to stimulation

30

hypothermia

low body temperature

31

hypokalemia

low potassium in blood

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hypothyroidism

deficient activity of thyroid gland

33

hypodermic

below the skin

34

hypotrophy (atrophy)

progressive degeneration
underdevelopment, decrease in size

35

hyperemesis

excessive vomiting
gravidarum=complication of pregnancy
gallbladder attacks also cause

36

cardiomegaly

hypertrophy of the heart

37

hypertension

high blood pressure

38

hypotension

low blood pressure
90/50

39

Diuretic

causes excretion of excess water
may be prescribed to lower BP

40

aden/o

glands

41

adenitis

inflammation of a gland

42

adenectomy

excision/removal of a gland

43

neoplasm

abnormal growth of cells
(new growth)

44

-oma

tumor

45

adenoma

tumor of a gland or glandular tissue

46

-pathy

disease

47

adenopathy

disease of a gland or glandular tissue

48

lymph/o

refers to lymphatic tissue

49

lymphadenopathy

disease of the lymph glands

50

lipoma

tumor containing fat

51

lip/o

fat

52

lymphoma

tumor composed of lymph tissue

53

lesion

wound, injury, or pathologic tissue

54

ulcers

more specific type of lesion
open sores on skin or mucous membrane
crater-like sore

55

tumor

abnormal growth in numbers and/or types of cells and may be cancerous

56

carcin/o

from Greek word for crab
cancer

57

carcinoma

cancerous tumor of epithelial tissue
may occur in almost any part of body
composed of abnormal epithelial tissue

58

metastasis

transfer of disease from one organ to another not connected to it
tumor that spreads beyond its origin
pl. metastases

59

meta-

beyond

60

-stasis

in one place (staying)

61

in situ

in place, confined

62

adenocarcinoma

cancer of glandular tissue

63

sarcoma

cancer of connective tissue

64

osteosarcoma

cancer of bone tissue

65

melan/o

black

66

melanosis

black pigmentation

67

melanoma

black tumor
tumor invading growth of melanocytes

68

seborrheic karatosis

noncancerous skin growth

69

papill/o

small elevation of tissue

70

fibr/o

fibrous tissue

71

chondr/o

cartilage

72

leiomy/o

smooth muscle

73

ather/o

fatty, porridgelike

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hemangi/o

blood vessel

75

neur/o

nerve

76

myel/o

bone marrow

77

melanocyte

black pigmented cell

78

melanoderma

black or dark skin coloring

79

melanocarcinoma

darkly pigmented cancer
malignant melanoma

80

onc/o

mass, tumor

81

oncology

study of tumors

82

oncologist

specialist who studies tumors

83

-oid

like or resembling

84

lipoid

fatlike
resembling fat (cholesterol is ex.)

85

atheroma

fatty (porridgelike tissue tumor found in blood vessels)
pl. atheromata

86

atherosclerosis

hardening of vessel walls due to fatty deposits

87

atheromata

found in large blood vessels

88

lipomata

found in body fat

89

arteri/o

arteries

90

arthr/o

joint

91

neo-

new

92

neogenesis

generation of new tissue

93

neonatal

pertaining to the newborn

94

anti-

against

95

-plast/ic

abnormal growth

96

antineoplastic

therapeutic agent that works against cancerous neoplasms

97

antitumorigenic

inhibits development of tumors

98

radiotheraphy

use of radiation for cancer treatment

99

chemotherapy

if antineoplastic chemical or drug agents are used for cancer treatment

100

Medical technologists (MTs), Medical laboratory technicians (MLTs) and Certified laboratory assistants (CLAs)

Physically and chemically analyze and culture urine, blood, and other body fluids and tissues to determine the presence of all types of diseases
American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP) oversees credentialing and education

101

3 treatments for cancer

surgery
chemotherapy
radiotherapy

102

mucoid

resembling mucus

103

muc/o

mucus

104

Radiation therapists (RT[T])

Specialize in administration of radiation therapy for purpose of treating cancer
Begin as registered radiographic technologists (RT[R})
Work in radiation oncology

105

mucosa

mucous membrane found lining the open body cavities

106

serous membrane/serosa

lines closed body cavities and covers outsides of organs

107

cephal/o

head

108

-algia

pain

109

cephalalgia (cephalgia)

pain in the head

110

-dynia, -dynic

pain

111

-algia vs -dynia

-algia= preceded by word root
-dynia= preceded by combining word

112

cephalodynic

pertaining to head pain, headache

113

cephalalgia, cephalodynia

head pain

114

cephalic

pertaining to or toward the head

115

encephal/o

pertaining to the brain

116

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

117

encephaloma

brain tumor

118

-cele

herniation
from Greek word kele meaning abnormal protrusion, swelling or herniation

119

encephalocele

herniation of the brain
brain tissue protrudes through cranial fissure

120

malacia

softening of a tissue

121

encephalomalacia

softening of brain tissue

122

encephalotomy

incision into the brain

123

malactomy

incision of soft areas

124

electroencephalogram (EEG)

picture of the electrical activity of the brain

125

electroencephalography

process of recording electrical brain activity

126

electroencephalograph

instrument used to record EEG
turns brain waves into electrical patterns showing a picture of changes in activity

127

electroneurodiagnostic (END) technologist

Perform EEG, evoked potentials (EP), polysomnography (PSG), nerve conduction studies (NCS), and electronystagmography (ENG).
May be graduates of a Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)

128

crani/o

skull

129

-plasty

surgical repair

130

cranioplasty

surgical repair of skull

131

craniomalacia

softening of the bones of the skull

132

craniectomy

excision of part of the cranium

133

craniotomy

incision into the skull

134

craniometer

instrument used to measure the cranium

135

craniocerebral

refers to the skull and the cerebrum

136

cerebr/o

pertaining to the cerebrum

137

cerebrum

largest part of brain where thought occurs
thinking, feeling, and movement controlled by gray matter in cerebrum
Includes frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes

138

cerebritis

inflammation of the cerebrum

139

cerebroma

cerebral tumor

140

cerebrotomy

incision into cerebrum to drain abscess

141

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Stroke

142

disease

abnormal function

143

hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD)

high blood pressure in vessels of the heart

144

cerebrospinal

refers to cerebrum and spinal cord

145

mening/o

meninges
3 layer membrane that covers brain and spinal cord

146

3 meninges

pia mater
arachnoid mater
dura mater

147

meningocele

herniation of the meninges

148

meningomalacia

softening of the meninges

149

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

150

meninges singular

meninx

151

biopsy

excision of live tissue for examination

152

cerebral

pertaining to the cerebrum

153

cerebrovascular

pertaining to the cerebrum and blood vessels

154

cytotechnologist

specialized technician that tests cells

155

cytologist

specialist in study of cells

156

encephalomeningitis

inflammation of the brain and meninges

157

encephalomyelopathy

disease condition of the brain and spinal cord

158

electroneurodiagnostic

electrical diagnostic testing (imaging) of nervous system function

159

glandular

pertaining to a gland

160

herniation

abnormal protrusion of an organ or other body structure through a defect or natural opening

161

malacotomy

incision into soft tissue

162

malignant

bad, worsening, or leading to death

163

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

164

metastasize

to spread beyond its origin

165

metastatic

pertaining to a metastasis or metastases

166

mucus

watery substance secreted by mucous membranes

167

neurodiagnostic

pertaining to the diagnostic studies performed to examine the nervous system by detecting electrical changes

168

vascular

pertaining to vessels

169

abscess

an area of tissue infection

170

abcites

effusion of fluid into the abdominal cavity

171

abrasion

an area of the skin or mucous membrane which has rubbed away by friction

172

adipose

fat

173

extravasation

the escape of body fluid or injected material from its normal channel

174

edema

the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in body tissues

175

lesion

an abnormal change in structure of an organ or part due to injury or disease