Unit 3.1.3 - Cells and Plasma Membranes Flashcards Preview

AS Biology - Unit 1 > Unit 3.1.3 - Cells and Plasma Membranes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 3.1.3 - Cells and Plasma Membranes Deck (88)
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1

What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic?

Eukaryotic cells are big complex cells where as prokaryotic cells are usually single celled organisms

2

Name three organelles you wouldn't find in a prokaryotic cell and the main reason why?

Nucleus, mitochondria and ER because they are too large and wouldn't fit it

3

Label the diagram of a eukaryotic cells?

See flash card 8

4

Label the diagram of a nucleus?

See flash card 9

5

Label the diagram of a mitochondria?

See flash card 10

6

What is the function of a nucleus?

Controls the cell activity

7

What is the function of the nucleolus?

Makes ribosomes

8

What is the function of mitochondria?

Produce energy by aerobic respiration

9

What is the function of smooth ER?

Makes and transports lipids

10

What is the function of rough ER?

Makes and transports proteins

11

What is the function of Golgi apparatus?

Modifies proteins

12

What is a vesicle?

A sack of protein that is used to transport the protein

13

What is the function of a ribosome?

To make protein

14

What is the function of the plasma membrane?

Control which substances enter and leave the cell

15

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

Where chemical reactions take place

16

What is the function of lysosomes?

Destroys (digests) dead organelles

17

What are microvilli?

Folds in the plasma membrane

18

Name two adaptations of an epithelium cell which makes it suitable for its function an why?

Microvilli - increase surface are for food absorption
Lots of mitochondria - to provide energy for the active transport of food molecules against the concentration gradient

19

What is the difference between magnification and resolution?

Magnification - how much bigger the image is than the specimen
Resolution - how detailed the image is

20

How do you calculate magnification?

Length of image / Length of specimen

21

How do you convert mm into µm?

x1000

22

What are the three types of microscopes?

1.) light microscope
2.) scanning electron microscope (SEM)
3.) transmission electron microscope (TEM)

23

How do transmission electron microscopes work?

They use electromagnets to focus a beam of electrons through a specimen, denser parts of specimen absorb more electrons which make them look darker on the image

24

How do scanning electron microscopes work?

They scan a beam of electrons across a specimen, this knocks of electrons from the specimen which are gathered in a cathode ray tube to form an image

25

Why cant you use either electron microscope on a living specimen?

You have to dehydrate the specimen and use heavy metals to stain it so you can see it under the microscope which kills any living cells

26

What are two advantages of a light microscope?

1.) can see living cells
2.) can see actual colour

27

What are two disadvantages of a light microscope?

1.) low magnification
2.) poor resolution

28

What are two advantages of a TEM?

1.) high magnification
2.) good resolution

29

What are three disadvantages of a TEM?

1.) can only be used on thin specimens
2.) can't be used on living specimens
3.) must be in a vacuum

30

What are four advantages of a SEM?

1.) can be used on thick specimens
2.) 3D image
3.) high magnification
4.) good resolution