Two carbon carbonyl
One carbon carbonyl
alkoxy- group attached to parent chain
IUPAC: Add th ename thiol to the longest alkane chain
No common name
2 - methyl 1 - propanethiol
IUPAC: the shorter alkyl group and the oxygen are named as an alkoxy group attached to the longer alkane.
Common: Name both alkyl group attached to the oxygen followed by the word ether.
Methyl propyl ether / 1 - methoxy propane
IUPAC/ Common name
IUPAC: Change the “e” ending of the longest alkane chain to “al” . No numbering
Common name: formaldehyde and acetaldehyde
IUPAC: Change the “e” ending of the longest alkane chain to “ one ”
Common name: both alkyl groups attached to the oxygen followed by the word ketone. It is very similar to ether
2 - pentanone / methyl propyl ketone
Naming carboxylic acid
IUPAC: Find the l ongest chain containing the carboxyl group, and change the “ - e ” ending of the parent alkane to “ - oic acid ”.
Common name: formic acid and acetic acid
Methanoic acid / Formic acid
IUPAC : Two name part. Name the group bonded to the oxygen atom as an alkyl group Name the group bonded to the C double O ( C=O) by changing the “ - ic acid” ending of the parent carboxylic acid to the suffix “ - ate”.
Common name: formate (methanoate) and acetate (ethanoate)
Methyl methanoate / Methyl Formate
Carboxylic acid + alcohol → ester + H2O
Loss Of Hydrogen
Gain Of Oxygen
Oxidation/Reduction of primary alcohols
Alkane → Primary Alcohol → Aldehyde → Carboxylic Acid
Carbon oxygen single bonds
Solubility of Aldehydes and ketones
1-4 carbons=soluble in water
Oxidation of secondary alcohols
Alkene → Secondary Alcohol → Ketone
Carboxylic Acid + NH3/NH2/NH → NH—C=O (Amide) + H2O