Unit 4 - Classification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4 - Classification Deck (35)
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1
Q

What are the 5 kingdoms?

A

Plantae, animalia, fungi, prokaryote, protocstita

2
Q

Define classification

A

Putting similar organisms into groups based on shared similarities e.g anatomy, physiology, behaviour

3
Q

Define taxonomy

A

The study of principles of classification

4
Q

Define taxon

A

a group

5
Q

Define hierarchy

A

A series of smaller and smaller groups

6
Q

Define phylogeny

A

The study of evolutionary relationship between organisms

7
Q

What modern evidence is available to taxonomists now?

A
  • DNA/genes
  • RNA
  • Amino acids + proteins
  • Lipid structure in membranes
8
Q

In order, what is the taxonomic hierarchy?

A
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus 
Species
9
Q

What are the criteria for being a species?

A
  • interbreeding group
  • produce viable and fertile offspring
  • have similarities in anatomy, biochemistry
  • share common ancestry
  • occupy some ecological niche
10
Q

Why is it important to have a universal system fir naming organisms?

A

So a specific organism can be identified

11
Q

What are the rules for writing the name of a species?

A

Genus species (Genus beginning with a capital letter, followed by species beginning with a lowercase letter)

12
Q

Define species

A

An interbreeding group capable of producing viable and fertile offspring which have similarities in anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology and share common ancestry

13
Q

Why are horses and donkeys considered separate species?

A

Though able to interbreed, they are not able to produce fertile offspring

14
Q

Why are mules not considered a separate species?

A

They are infertile

15
Q

Why do mules not have a scientific name?

A

They are not a species

16
Q

Why does differing numbers of chromosomes in interbreeding animals produce infertile offspring?

A

Meisosis cannot occur as the different numbers of chromosomes mean the chromosomes are unable to match up

17
Q

What is binomial nomenclature?

A

The two name system of naming organisms using genus and species

18
Q

What is a phylogenetic tree?

A

The evolutionary relationships between organisms are represented as a branching tree

19
Q

What is a sister group?

A

Groups with a recent split, the two groups that diverged most recently

20
Q

What is a common ancestor?

A

A group of organisms everything else has evolved from

21
Q

What is a node? (in relation to phylogenetic trees)

A

Divergence of a species

22
Q

What is a tip? (in relation to phylogenetic trees)

A

Present day organisms

23
Q

If two species have a recent divergence, are they closely related?

A

Yes. The more recent the divergence, the more closely related organisms are

24
Q

Which taxon is larger than kingdoms?

A

Domain

25
Q

Under the 3 domain system, how many kingdoms are there?

A

6

26
Q

What are the characteristics of the kingdom Animalia? (Give 5)

A
  • eukaryotic
  • multicellular
  • membrane bound organelles
  • heterophobic feeders
  • no cell walls
  • store food as glycogen
27
Q

What are the characteristics of the kingdom Plantae? (Give 5)

A
  • eukaryotic
  • cellulose cell walls
  • chloroplasts
  • multicellular
  • autotrophic feeders
  • food stored as starch
  • membrane bound organelles
28
Q

What are the characteristics of the kingdom fungi? (Give 5)

A
  • eukaryotic
  • multi or uni cellular
  • chitin cell walls
  • most saprotrophic feeders
  • store food as glycogen
  • membrane bound organelles
29
Q

What are the characteristics of the kingdom Prokaryotae? (Give 5)

A
  • prokaryotic
  • unicellular
  • peptidoglycan cell walls
  • DNA not associated with histones
  • DNA circular
  • no membrane bound organelles
30
Q

What are the characteristics of protoctista?

A

Any organism that is excluded from other kingdoms is placed in protoctista

31
Q

What are the 3 domains?

A

Bacteria, Archae, Eukarya

32
Q

Under the 3 domain system, what are the 6 kingdoms?

A
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • Protoctista
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
33
Q

Give 3 similarities between the domains of Bacteria and Archae

A
  • circular chromosomes
  • no nucleus
  • 70s ribosomes
  • no membrane bound organelles
34
Q

Give a similarity between the domains of Bacteria and Eukarya

A

-normal phospholipids in membranes

35
Q

Give 3 similarities between the domains of Eukarya and Archae

A
  • similar DNA replication
  • histones bound to DNA
  • No peptidoglycan cell walls
  • not susceptible to antibiotics
  • similar RNA polymerase