Unit 4: Gilded Age- Emergence of Modern America Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Gilded Age- Emergence of Modern America Deck (36):
1

Frontier

the furthest limit or boundary; in this era it was the untamed west

2

Dawes Allotment Act

law giving Indian families 160 acres for reservations; slowly land was taken away as more settlers moved onto Indian territory

3

Reservations

lands set aside for use by Native Americans; often not suitable for farming

4

Homestead Act

law giving 160 acres and a title after 5 years of ownership and cultivation of land

5

Morrill Act

gives federal land to the states allowing for agricultural state universities to be established

6

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture; established to help farming get started in the Great Plains (west)

7

Capitalism

an economic system in which private business runs most industries and competition thus determining how much goods cost and workers get paid

8

Corporations

companies that sell stock of ownership in the company to raise money

9

Monopoly

complete control over a business or industry

10

Trusts

partnerships of business owners who control businesses together

11

Black gold

nickname for oil; becomes more valuable than actual gold

12

Labor Unions

organizations formed to protect the rights of workers

13

Natvisits

favored native born Americans over immigrants; were anti-immigrants

14

Tenements

run down housing units lived in by 19th and 20th century immigrants; often were in poor conditions

15

Yellow Journalism

stories often published in newspapers that exaggerate the truth, but are meant to expose the problems in society

16

Hull House

settlement house and community service center established by Jane Addams

17

Political machines

similar to gangs run by politicians; political parties take control of city offices and control the entire city

18

Political bosses

people that ran cities often through use of fraud and intimidation

19

Graft

a method of fraud; using a bribe or falsehood to get political power

20

Muckrakers

investigative journalists that "raked up" and exposed the muck or filth of society

21

Gilded Age

period in American history where all seemed well, but beneath the surface, society was very corrupt; term coined by authors Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Moore

22

Pendleton Civil Service Act

law changing Civil Service requirements, making it necessary to take a test in order to get a government position (gets rid of old "spoils system" method)

23

National Grange

group established to help tackle economic and political issues facing farmers (i.e. high prices for shipping, storage their crops)

24

Progressive Movement

broadly based reform movement during the 20th century; lead by middle class, educated Americans who wanted to see a change

25

Interstate Commerce Act

creates standardized shipping rates to made trade among states easier- and fair

26

Americanization

the process of preparing foreign born citizens for US citizenship; also a process done to Natives to force them to adapt to American culture

27

Square Deal

Campaign slogan used by Roosevelt in the 1904 campaign, wanting to balance the interests of business, consumers and labor; everyone got a fair deal

28

Robber Baron

nickname given to the men who ran monopolies as a criticism of their wealth and power

29

Philanthropy

"love of humanity"; private initiatives for the public good; i.e. donations made for charitable use to help others

30

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Leader of the railroad monopoly; family became very wealthy

31

Andrew Carnegie

Leader of the steel monopoly; family becomes very wealthy; encourages the rich to give back through charity

32

John D. Rockefeller

Leader of the oil monopoly; family becomes very wealthy

33

Samuel Gompers

leads the labor movement for worker's rights; founder of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)

34

Theodore Roosevelt

"Teddy"; Vice President who becomes the 26th President; Progressive leader who worked for reform; leader in the conservation movement

35

William Taft

27th president, follows and supported by T. Roosevelt; tries to continue Roosevelt's programs

36

Woodrow Wilson

28th President; also attempts to continue progressive reforms until WWI