Unit 4- Orthopedics, Osteopathy, and Body Regions Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Unit 4- Orthopedics, Osteopathy, and Body Regions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4- Orthopedics, Osteopathy, and Body Regions Deck (185):
1

Osteo

bone

2

osteitis

inflammation of the bone

3

osteomalacia

Softening of the bones
Adult rickets
Vitamin D deficiency, phosphate deficiency, and abnormal excretion of calcium by the kidneys
Contributing factor is use of tobacco products

4

Etiology

Study of the cause of a disease

5

hyperparathyroidism

Disorder of the parathyroid glands
Can cause calcium to be withdrawn from the bones and cause osteomalacia

6

-pathy

disease

7

osteopathy

disease of bone

8

Doctor of osteopathy (DO)

Receives special training about the skeleton and its relationship to disease
Believe body has natural ability to heal itself given a favorable environment and good nutrition and so act as teachers to help patients take a responsible role in their own well-being and to change unhealthy patterns
Osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMT) incorporated into training and practice
American Osteopathic Association (AOA) oversees

9

osteoma

a hard growth on a bone
bone tumor
pl. osteomata

10

osteoarthropathy

any disease involving bones and joints

11

arthr/o

joint

12

poros

Greek meaning passageway

13

osteoporosis

Disease condition of the bone in which there is deterioration of the bone matrix causing pores and weakness
Can be caused by calcium deficiency and hormone changes associated with menopause in women and a hereditary predisposition

14

-penia

low number or loss

15

osteopenia

loss of bone

16

erythrocytopenia

red blood cell loss

17

osteosarcoma

bone cancer

18

myelo

bone marrow or spinal cord

19

myelodysplasia

condition characterized by increased and abnormal bone marrow or spinal cord development
defective formation of the spinal cord

20

polio

gray, referring to gray matter of nervous system

21

poliomyelitis

Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a viral infection
May cause paralysis of the limbs and muscle hypertrophy
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) given to prevent

22

encephalomyelopathy

disease of the brain and spinal cord

23

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone and marrow

24

arthroscope

instrument used to look into a joint

25

myeloblast

immature bone marrow cell
bone marrow germ cell

26

myelocytic

pertaining to myelocytes

27

myelocele

herniation of the spinal cord

28

meningomyelocele

herniation of the spinal cord and meninges

29

-plasia

development or formation naturally

30

hyperplasia

increase in number of cells in a tissue
overgrowth, too much development

31

dys-

defective

32

dysplasia

defective formation

33

arthrodysplasia

defective formation of a joint

34

myelodysplasia

defective formation of the spinal cord

35

osteodysplasia

defective bone development

36

aplasia

failure of an organ to develop

37

hypoplasia

deficient development

38

arthroscopy

procedure for examining the joints by looking with an arthroscope

39

arthroplasty

surgical repair of a joint

40

-plasty

surgical repair or reconstruction

41

plast

form, mold, or rebuild

42

-plasia vs -trophy vs -genesis

-plasia= changes in number and form of cells
-trophy= changes in size of cells and organs
-genesis= original growth of cells and organs

43

arthritic

pertaining to a joint

44

arthritis

inflammation of a joint

45

antiarthritic agent

medication used to treat arthritis

46

osteoarthritis (OA)

arthritis characterized by inflammation and destruction of bone and joint tissue

47

Rheumatoid

Greek for resembling discharge or fluid

48

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

affects softer tissues of the joint and often accompanied by fluid in the joints
Causes inflammation of joints- arthritis
Caused by systemic autoimmune response

49

arthrotomy

incision into a joint

50

rheumatology

medical specialty that studies, diagnoses, and treats rheumatic conditions

51

rheumatologist

physician specialist who treats rheumatic conditions

52

tendons

made of connective tissue and attach muscle to bone

53

ligaments

attach bone to bone
supports visceral organs

54

fascia

attaches muscle to muscle

55

teno-, tendo-, tendino-

tendon

56

tendoplasty, tenoplasty, tendinoplasty

repair of the tendons surgically

57

tendin/o-

used for words about inflammation of the tendons

58

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon

59

ten/o-

used for words for pain in a tendon

60

tenalgia, tenodynia

tendon pain

61

bursa

small serous sac between a tendon and bone
pl. bursae

62

burs/o

refers to bursae of body

63

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

64

bursectomy

excision of a bursa

65

chondr/o

cartilage

66

osteochondritis

inflammation of bone and cartilage

67

cartilage

tough, elastic connective tissue found in ear, nose tip, rib ends, and lining of joints

68

chondralgia, chondrodynia

pain in or around cartilage

69

tenoplasty

repair of tendons

70

tenodynia

pain in tendons

71

chondrectomy

excision of cartilage

72

cost/o

ribs

73

chondrocostal

pertaining to the ribs and cartilage

74

costectomy

excision of a rib or ribs

75

menisc/us

crescent-shaped cartilage structure in the knee
lateral and medial meniscus

76

meniscitis

inflammation of the meniscus

77

meniscectomy

excision of a torn meniscus

78

costal

pertaining to the ribs

79

intercostal

between the ribs

80

inter-

between

81

hypochondriac

below the cartilage, region below the rib cage cartilage

82

interchondral

between cartilages

83

internal vs external intercostal muscles

internal- breathing out, decreasing size of ribcage
external- inhalation, enlarging the rib cage

84

dent/o dent/i

tooth/teeth

85

interdental

between the teeth

86

dental

pertaining to the teeth

87

dentalgia

pain in the teeth (toothache)

88

dentoid

tooth-shaped, resembling a tooth

89

dentist

takes care of teeth
Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS)

90

dentifrice

used for cleaning teeth

91

orth/o

straight

92

odont/o

shaped like a tooth

93

orthodontist

dentist who specializes in straightening abnormally positioned teeth

94

peri-

around or near

95

peridontal

around or near the teeth

96

peridontist

performs surgery of the gums or tissues around the teeth

97

periosteum

membrane around the bone

98

perichondrium

membrane around the cartilage

99

pericardium

membrane around the heart

100

orthopedist

Physician who specializes in the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.
Treats fractures (makes straight)

101

orthotics

science that studies and develops mechanical appliances used as supportive devices
also the devices themselves like splints and casts

102

orthotist

specialist who designs and fits supportive devices

103

prosthetists

work with patients in need of replacing an amputated limb

104

prosthesis

appliance that prosthetist produces
artificial limb or other body part replacement

105

orthosis

condition of straightening or supporting

106

lumb/o, lumbar

lower back, between thorax and sacrum

107

lumbar vertebrae

L1-5

108

thorac/o

chest/thorax

109

thoracolumbar

pertaining to the chest and lower back

110

thoracic vertebrae

T1-12

111

supra

on, over, above

112

supralumbar

above the lumbar region

113

supracostal

above the ribs

114

supracranial

surface of the head on top of the skull

115

pub/o

refers to pubis
bone in lower anterior pelvis

116

pubis

bone of the pelvis, pubic bone

117

suprapubic

above the pubis

118

suprapubic cystotomy

incision of bladder from the suprapubic region

119

pelv/i

refers to pelvis
bony structure including the ilium, ischium, pubis, sacrum, and coccyx

120

plural of pelvis

pelves

121

pelvimetry

measuring pelvis size
done during pregnancy

122

cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)

When baby's head is larger than diameter of mother's pelvis
Can lead to serious complications during delivery

123

pelvimeter

device used for pelvimetry

124

suprapelvic

above the pelvis

125

cephalometer

measures the head

126

thoracometer

measures the chest

127

cardiometer

measures the heart

128

abnormal

deviating from what is normal or expected

129

ab-

from, away from

130

aberrant

wandering from (-errant=wandering)
used in medicine to describe a structure that wanders from the normal path

131

abberant nerve, vessels

nerve fibers/vessels that follow an unusual route

132

duct

to lead or move

133

abduction

movement away from a midline
ex: occurs when arm is raised from side of body or fingers of hand are spread apart

134

ad-

toward

135

adduction

movement toward a midline
ex: when arm is moved toward body

136

addiction

being drawn toward the same habit

137

adhesion

formed when two normally separate tissues join together
pts usually encouraged to ambulate soon after surgery to help prevent postop adhesions

138

abdomin/o

abdomen
belly area, cavity below thorax

139

paracentesis, centesis

surgical puncture
insertion of a needle into a body cavity for the purpose of aspirating fluid

140

abdominocentesis

tapping or puncturing of the abdomen for the removal of fluid
surgical puncture of the abdomen

141

amni/o

amnion
protective sac surrounding fetus

142

amniocentesis

tapping or puncturing amniotic sac to remove cells for genetic testing

143

cardiocentesis

surgical puncture into the heart chambers
used for diagnosis and treatment

144

abdominocystic

pertaining to the abdomen and urinary bladder

145

cyst/o

urinary bladder or fluid-filled sac
also, gallbladder, ovarian cyst

146

cystotomy

incision into the urinary bladder

147

cystectomy

excision of the urinary bladder

148

-scopy

procedure used to look into an organ or body cavity with a scope

149

cystoscopy

process of examining by looking with an instrument into the urinary bladder

150

cystotomy

incision into the urinary bladder

151

cystocele

When bladder wall weakens and forms a hernia into the vagina
most common in women

152

thorac/o

thorax
chest/area of the back posterior to the chest

153

cystoscopy

process of examining by looking with an instrument into the urinary bladder

154

cystoplasty

surgical repair of the bladder

155

cystocele

When bladder wall weakens and forms a hernia into the vagina

156

thorac/o

thorax/chest

157

thorax pl. form

thoraces

158

thoracolumbar

pertaining to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

159

cholecyst-

gallbladder

160

thoracocentesis (thoracentesis)

puncture (surgical tapping) of the chest to remove fluids

161

thoracopathy

chest disease

162

thoracolumbar

pertaining to the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

163

cholecyst-

gallbladder

164

hydrophobia

abnormal fear of water
aka rabies, b/c rabid animals afraid of choking on water

165

hydrocele

accumulation of fluid in saclike cavity
more specific form of hydrocyst
especially scrotum, 2-5 year old boys

166

hydrocephalus

collection of fluid in head
enlarged head due to increased amount of fluid in the skull
results in deformity unless arrested, causes brain damage, children usually mentally challenged

167

-phobia

fear

168

hydrophobia

abnormal fear of water

169

acrophobia

fear of heights (extremely high places)

170

androphobia

fear of men

171

autophobia

fear of being by one's self

172

bacteriophobia

fear of bacteria

173

carcinophobia

fear of cancer

174

leukophobia

fear of the color white

175

claustrophobia

fear of confined spaces

176

hydrotherapy

treatment by water
PTs use swirling baths to increase ease of movement

177

gynephobia/gynophobia

fear of women

178

leukophobia

fear of the color white

179

myelocytes

bone marrow cells

180

hydrotherapy

treatment by water
PTs use swirling baths to increase ease of movement

181

fracture

break or crack

182

kyphosis

hunch back, posterior thoracic curvature

183

myelocytes

bone marrow cells

184

periodontal

around the tooth

185

periodontist

dentist specializing in treatment of diseased tissue around teeth