Unit 4: Rome and Religion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Rome and Religion Deck (34):
1

Canaan

-eastern end of the Mediterranian sea
-where Phoenicians, Philistines, and Israelites (aka: Jews) lived
-had ports for trade
-had a land routes(for trade) from Africa to Asia
-trade helped them get money and ideas
-has harsh features (arid desert, rocky wilderness, grassy hills, dry hot valley of the Jordon River)

2

Torah

-first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible
-Jews considered it/them their most sacred writings in their tradition
-Christians respect them as part of theOld Testament
-describes that God chose Abraham to be the "father" of the Jewish people

3

Abraham

-decribed in the Torah that god chose him to be the "father" of the Jewish people
-he was a shepherd who lived in the city of Ur, in Mesopotamia
-Book of Genesis: God commanded him to move his people to Canaan--->1800 B.C
-1650 B.C : descendants of Abraham moved to Egypt
-The Hebrew bible tells how Abraham and his family migrated for many years from Mesopotamia to Canaan to Egypt and back to Canaan------>God watched over them

4

Monothesim

-belief in a single god
-comes from the Greek words "mono," meaning one, and "thesim," meaning god-worship.
-God had power over all peoples, everywhere; God was not a physical being and no physical images were to be made of him <----according to the Israelites

5

covenant

-the mutual promise between God and the founder of the Jewish people
-Ex: God would look after the Israelites if the Israelites promised to obey him

6

Moses

-commanded by God to lead the Israelites out of slavery (according to the Torah)
-adopted by an Egyptian princess when she found him floating on the Nile (after his real mother hid him along the banks of the Nile because she didn't want him to be killed)
-climbed up to Mt. Sinai (Sinai Peninsula) to pray; came down with the 10 commandments, written on 2 stone tablets

7

the Ten Commandments

- a code of moral laws believed to have been given to Moses by God
-serves as the basis for Jewish law and the civil ans religious laws of Judaism
-look on pg 79

8

Israel

-a kingdom of the united Israelites lasting from about 1020 - 922 B.C:
-later : the northern most of the 2 Israelite kingdons
-now : the Jewish nation that was established in the ancient homeland in 1948
-pg 81

9

Judah

-an Israelite kingdom in Canaan, established around 922 B.C
-in the south

10

tribute

-peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger power

11

What were some of the achievments of Solomon?

-he was the most powerful of Israelite kings
-built trading empire
-famous for wisdom (story about baby pg 81)
-beautified Jerusalem (capital city)-----> built a temple to glorify God, had the Ark fo the Covenant (Ten Commandments) and was made of stone (outside) and cedar covered in gold (inside)
-the temple had bronze pillars]
-Solomon built a royal palace, which was more expensive and "more magnificent" than the temple
-forced people to pay high taxes and forced labor, which caused a rebellion that split the kingdom
-

12

What was the Babylonian Captivity?

-the removal of Jews (out of Jerusalem) by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C.
-Jerusalem fell; the temple was destroyed
-100 yrs of captivity
-LOOK AT CLASSNOTES

13

In what ways are the laws delivered to Moses (Ten Commandments) similar to Hummurabi's code?

-both law codes
-the same phrases were used in both

14

Jesus

-Jew
-known as the Messiah (king)
-Birth : between 6-4 B.C.
-Mission (teachings) : A.D 24-28
-Death : A.D 29
-born in Bethlehem in Judea
-info about his life and teachings is in the Gospels (the first 4 books of the New Testament of the Christian Bible)
-baptized by a prophet (John the Baptist)
-raised in Nazareth in northern Judea
-carpenter; common people; not wealthy; could relate to the common people
-put in prison (charged with defying Roman gov./rule)
-killed---> crucified
-resurrected-----> Christianity grew and gained more followers; strengthened Christianity

15

What did Jesus emphasize in his early teachings?

-personal relationships with God
-to love God, your neighbors, self, and enemies
-if this is done, then you go to Heaven (a blissful, wonderful place)

16

Why did the early Christians face persecution from the Romans?

-Christians refused to believe in the Roman gods and goddesses (Jupiter/Jove, Juno....etc)
-this was seen as an opposition to Roman rule
-many Christians were burned, crucified, or killed by wild animals in circus arenas (Colloseum)

17

What was the importance of the Nicene Creed?

-A.D. 325 : Constantine called a council of all the top Christians and they argue about the basic beliefs of Christianity
-made a list of the basic belifs of Christianity that they all agreed on
-wrote the Nicene Creed
-it defined the basic beliefs of the Church

18

apostles

-followers of Jesus who preached and spread his teachings
-12

19

Paul

-one of 12 apostles
-at first an enemy of Christianity
-converted to Christianity
-travelled = said Christianity is for everyone (Jews/non-Jews, men + women, slaves + free ppl, Greeks + non-Greeks)
-offered Christianity to MEN
-changed definition for who/what Christianity is for
-explained Jesus's beliefs

20

the Disapora

the dispersal of Jews from their homeland in Judea, especially during the period of more than 1,800 yeares that followed the Romans destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in A.D. 70

21

martyrs

-ppl willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of a belief or a cause
-Ex: Christians

22

How did Christianity spread?

it.......
-embraced all ppl (men, women, enslaved ppl, poor, nobles)
-gave hope to the powerless
-appealed to those who were repelled by imperial Rome
-offered a personal relationship with a loving God
-promised eternal life

23

Constantine

-wannabe emperor of the Roman Empire
-battled with 3.ppl who also want to be emperor

BATTLE OF MILVIAN BRIDGE (A.D. 312)
-Constanitine prayed for help (on the eve of battle)
-claimed to have seen an image of a cross (the chi rho symbol------>P with an x through it)
-ordered the artisans to put this symbol on all the shields
-Constantine & his troops were VICTORIOUS!!

-A.D. 313 : Edict of Milan----->leagalized Christanity; end of persecution
-Constantine became emperor (wealthy/powerful)
-converted to Christianity on his deathbed in A.D. 332
-this resultd in many ppl (common & rich ppl) to convert to Christianity (to be like the emperor)

24

bishop

-priest
-a high ranking Christian official who supervises a number of local churches (a diocese)
-LOOK AT CLASSNOTES (pyramid)

25

pope

-bishop of Rome
-father or the head of the Christian Church (Roman Catholic Church)

26

Peter

-apostle
-travelled from Jerusalem to Rome
-first bishop in Rome
-Petros means "rock"
-Jesus referred to him as the "rock" on which the Christian Church would be built (foundation of the Church)
-all priests and bishops traced their authority to
-later became the first pope

27

inflation

-a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices

28

mercenaries

-foreign soldiers who fought for money

29

Diocletian

-army leader
-A.D. 284 : became the new emperor
-restored the empire and increased it's strength
-doubled the size of the army
-controled the inflation
-divided the empire (too large and complex for one person to rule)-----> East (Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Egypt) and West (Latin speaking, Italy Gaul, Britain, Spain)
-he got the East
-the East was wealther and had more of the trade centers and great cities than the West
-A.D 305 : died; civil war broke out

30

Constantinople

-capital of Roman Empire
-Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he changed to Constantinople
-it means "the city of Constantine"

31

Attila the Hun

-powerful chieftain of the Huns, who were "barbarians" from Central Asia
-the Huns started migratinf to the West supposedly beacause of a drought
they pushed the Germans into Roman territory
-Atilla was called the "Scourge (means whip) of God"

32

External Causes of the Fall of Roman Empire

-invaders (Germans + Huns)
-they were considered "barbarians" (had no law, nomadic/migratory, no cities, no large art, no agriculture, no writing)

33

Internal Causes of the Fall of the Romans Empire

Political : military interference in politics ; division of the Empire ; move of the capital

Social : lack of loyalty ; decline of the population (cities / countrysides were empty)

Mlitary : low patriotism ; mercenaries were hired as replacements (they were only loyal to the person paying them, not the Empire)

Economic : poor harvest ; disruption of trade ; no more war plunder ; gold + silver drain ; inflation ; tax burdens ; wideing gap between rich & poor, which increasingly depleted the Western Empire

34

ethical monotheism

-the emphasis on right conduct and the worship of one god
-a Jewish idea that has influenced human behavior for thousands of years through Judaism, Christianity, and Islam