Unit 4: Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Deck (47):

geocentric conception

-earth-centered; the universe was seen as a series of concentric spheres with a fixed or motionless each at its center (Ptolemy)


Nicolaus Copernicus

-1463-1543; studied math and astronomy in native Poland and at Bologna and Padua (Italy)
-On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres= 1500s; published shortly before his death bc he was afraid of the criticism/ridicule
-felt that Ptolemy’s geocentric system was too complicated and didn’t accord with the observations of the planets
-heliocentric conception
-he didn’t reject aristotle’s principles of the existence of planets moving in orbit
-shift from geocentric to heliocentric= raised questions about Aristotle’s astronomy and physics, even though Copernicus still followed Aristotle


Tycho Brahe-

-1546-1601; Danish nobleman
-20 yrs= detailed records of observations of positions and movements of stars and planets; pretty accurate
-rejected the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system; didn’t accept Copernicus’s idea that the earth moved


Johannes Kepler

- 1571-1630; destined by parents to be Lutheran minister
-confirmed Copernicus’ heliocentric theory while modifying it → but didn’t like Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system
-3 laws of planetary motion


3 laws of planetary motion

-1. rejected Copernicus showing that the orbitals of planets around sun were not circular but elliptical, with sun at one focus of the ellipse rather than at the center
-2. demonstrated that the speed of a planet is greater when it is closer to the sun and decreases as its distance from the sin increases
-contracted with the fundamental Aristotelian tenet that Copernicus shared, that the motion of all the planets was steady and unchanging.
-3. 10 yrs later…….square of a planet’s period of revolution is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun (planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower average velocity that those with smaller orbits)


Galileo Galilei

-1564-1642; Italian scientist; taught math
-first European to make systematic observations of the heavens with telescope→ new age of astronomy
-universe= composed of of material substance similar to that of earth, not ethereal/perfect and unchanging substance (abolished another aspect of traditional views)
-The Starry Messenger=new picture of the universe, not mathematical theories of Copernicus and Kepler
-principle on inertia= body in motion continues motion forever unless deflected by an external force (state of uniform motion is just as natural as a state of rest)
- if uniform force was applied to the first object, it would move at an accelerated speed rather than a constant speed


Isaac Newton

-1642-1727; Englishman; only English scientist to be buried in Westminster Abbey
-Principia= spelled out mathematical proofs demonstrating laws of gravitation (combo of theories of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo)
-3 laws of motion
-law of gravitation= why planets don’t go in a straight line→ elliptical orbits around sun


3 laws of motion

-1. every object continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless deflected by a force
-2. the rate of change of motion of an object is proportional to the force acting on it
-3. to every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction



-physician, medicine; his influence on medieval medical world was in anatomy, physiology (the functioning of the body), and disease
-relied on animal dissection, not human, to get a picture of human anatomy→ inaccurate bu ppl still relied on it
-4 humors


four bodily humors..

-blood= warm and moist
-yellow bile= warm and dry
-phlegm= cold and moist
-black bile= cold and dry
-disease= 4 humors were out of balance (discoloration/more/less of urine→ examine patient's urine)
-meds= purging and bleeding; herbal meds



-1493-1541; “greater than Celsus”, Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim; father of modern medicine
-macrocosm-microcosm analogy
-humans were small replicas (microcosms) of a larger world (macrocosm) → all parts of the universe were represented within each person
-believed that the chemical reactions of the universe as a whole were reproduced in human beings on a smaller scale
-disease was due to chemical imbalances, not imbalance of 4 humors, and could be treated by chemical remedies-


new drugs

-disease would be cured if used in proper form and quantity but he didn’t have much success curing his patients (“homicide physician”)
-disease was due to chemical imbalances, not imbalance of 4 humors, and could be treated by chemical remedies
-“like cures like” (ancient Germanic folk principle); not “contraries cure” (Galen)


Andreas Vesalius

-1514-1564; practical research= principal avenue for understanding human anatomy
-professor of surgery
-On the Fabric of the Human body= based on his Paduan lectures; dissected body; illustrations
-caught errors in Galen’s practices
-Galen thought that the great blood vessels came from the liver, when Vesalius states they actually came from the heart
-still believed that there was a ebb and flow of 2 kinds of blood in the veins and arteries
-circulation of blood proved this wrong


William Harvey

-On The Motion of the Heart and Blood= 1628 break in Galen’s ideas; meticulous observations and experiments
-demonstrated that the heart and not the liver was the beginning point of the circulation of blood
-same blood flows in both veins and arteries
-blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body
-his idea were not recognized until capillaries were discovered
-his theory of circulation of the blood laid the foundation for modern physiol


Margaret Cavendish

-aristocratic background
-participated in important scientific debated of her time
-excluded member of the Royal Society
-Observations upon Experimental Philosophy ; Grounds of Natural Philosophy
-defects in rationalist and empiricist approaches to scientific knowledge
-through science, humans would be masters of the universe
-she was a good example of women in France and England who worked in science (


Maria Winkelmann

-1670-1720; educated by dad
-husband's assistant
-applied for position as assistant astronomer but bc she was a woman and had no university degree she was denied
science= male reserve; -no matter how good these women were, they were not allowed into the Royal Society and French Academy of Science and were expected to do their domestic duties


querelles des femmes

-arguments about women; nature and value of women was debated
-women= portrayed as inherently base, prone to wickedness, easily swayed and “sexually insatiable” → men “needed” to control them (what they thought)
-women argued that learned women= viewed having overcome female portrayals to become like men
-women argued that women also had rational minds and could grow from education

-science= used to find new support for the old, stereotypical views about a woman's place in the scheme of things
-Vesalius= skeletons of men and women were the same
-18th century= female skeletons→ larger pelvic area and smaller skulls


Rene Descartes

-dreamed the outlines of a new rational-mathematical system→ new commitment to the mind, math, and mechanical universe
- father of modern rationalism
-Discourse on Method= 1637
-“I think therefore I am”
-Cartesian dualism


Cartesian dualism

- absolute duality between mind and body
-mind and body work together but they are separate


scientific method

-proper means to examine and understand the physical realm
-how something works
-didn’t really focus on why it happens or it’s purpose→ religion takes over


Francis Bacon

-1561-1626; Englishman; lawyer; lord chancellor
-The Great Instauration= “ commence a total reconstruction for sciences, arts, and all human knowledge upon the proper foundations
-correct scientific method= inductive principles
-not assuming with logic but using experiments



-the practice of relying on observation and experiment


The English Royal Society

-first on informal gatherings of scientists at London and Oxford in 1640s
formal charter in 1662 from King Charles II
-not paid by state
-little gov encouragement; members chose new members
-observatory= Greenwich; 1675→ made research about astronomy easier
-Philosophical Transactions= 1665
-published papers of members and learned agreements


The French Royal Academy of Sciences

-informal meetings in 1650s
1666= Louis XIV recognized group
state support; under gov control; members= appointed and paid by state
-collected tools and machines
-observatory= Pairs; 1667
-Journal des Savants= 1665; published weekly
-printed results of experiments and scientific knowledge
-appealed scientists and educated public interested in the new science


Benedict Spinoza

-1632-1677; philosopher; Amsterdam
-influenced by Descartes→ separation of mind and matter; apparent separation of an infinite God from the finite world of matter
-humans are a part of God or nature or universal order, like other natural objects (not “situated in nature as a kingdom within a kingdom”)
-analyze human emotion like would planets movement
-real freedom comes from when they understand the order and necessity of nature and achieve detachment from passing interests
-believed in geometry in philosophy



-God created the universe; He is the universe; nothing can be apart from God
-aka= monism


Blaise Pascal

-French scientist and mathematician; wanted to keep science and religion united
-Pensees (Thoughts)= tried to convert rationalists to Christianity by appealing to both their reason and emotion
-humans= frail, often deceived by senses; mislead by reason; battered by emotions
-Christianity= reason; he thought it was the only religion that recognized ppl’s true state of being as vulnerable and great
-FAITH→ the heart feels God, not reason. This is what constitutes faith: God experienced by heart, not by the reason”


Immanuel Kant

- defined Enlightenment as “man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity”
-scientific understanding→ understanding way of life
-all institutions and all systems of thought were subject to the rational scientific way of thinking of only ppl would free themselves from shackles of old, worthless traditions, especially religious ones
-find laws o human society



-doubtful or questioning attitude, especially about religion
-spread of scientific knowledge→ questioning of religious truths and values
-Pierre Bayle= Protestant; leading critic of traditional attitudes


cultural relativism

-belief that no culture is superior to another bc culture is a matter of custom, not reason, and derives its meaning from the group holding it
-religious skepticism
-intellectuals classify ppl into racial groups→ polygenesis (belief in separate human species) and monogenesis (one human species characterized by racial variations)
-unsympathetic to Africans (lowest rank of humankind)


John Locke

- theory of knowledge influenced philosophes
-tabula rasa
-knowledge is derived from environment, not heredity; from reason, not faith
-Essay Concerning Human Understanding= 1690; rejected Descartes belief in innate ideas


tabula rasa

-blank mind
-everyone is born with one
-ppl are molded by their environment and experiences from surrounding world



-literary ppl, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, social reformers
-noble and middle class; sometimes lower class
-Paris= capital; most leaders of Enlightenment were French
-role of philosophy= change the world; not just discuss



-1689-1755; came from French nobility; classical education; studied law
-criticized French institutions (Catholic Church and French monarchy)
-The Spirit of the Laws= 1748; comparative study of govs; attempted to apply scientific method to social and political arena to make sure of the “natural laws” governing the social relationships of humans
-3 kinds of govs….
-1. republics for small states and based on citizen involvement
-2. monarchy for middle sized states (England)
-3. despotism for large empires and dependent on fear to inspire obedience
-separation of powers → checks and balances
-1executive, legislative, and judicial powers that serve to limit control for each other→ England→ provided the greatest freedom and security for the state
-wanted French gov to be like this
-American philosophes would read this (Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton) and incorporated it in the US Constitution



-Francois-Marie Arouet; middle class; Paris
-criticized France
-adopted Newton's ideas
-well known for his criticism of traditional religion and strong attachment to the ideal of religious toleration→ fought cases of intolerance
-deism= existence of a mechanic (God) who created the universe
-God had no direct involvement in the world he created and allowed it to run according to its own natural laws


Denis Diderot

-1713-1784; France; freelance writer (study many subjects and read many languages)


David Hume

-Scottish philosopher; 1711-1776; “pioneering social scientists”
-Treatise on Human Nature
-observation and refelction
-careful examination of the experience that consisted human life would lead to the knowledge of human nature that would make this science possible



-Physiocrats and Adam Smith are viewed as founders of the modern discipline of economics
-believed that the wealth of nations was derived from land, not gold and silver
-1st principle= land constituted the only source of wealth and that wealth itself could be increased only by agriculture bc all other economics activities were unproductive and sterile
-2nd “natural law” of economics= rejection of mercantilism and its emphasis on a controlled economy for the benefit of the state



-state should not interfere (“let the people do as they choose”)


Adam Smith

- 1723-1790; Scottish philosopher
-The Wealth of Nations= laissez-faire; 3 principles of economics; attack on mercantilism
1. condemned mercantilist use of tariffs to protect home industries
-if buying a product is cheaper than making it, BUY it
-free trade
-labor theory of value→ gold and silver not source of true wealth→ LABOR is wealth of nation
- gov had 3 basic functions 1.protect gov from invasion (army)
2.defend individuals from injustice and oppression (police)
3.keep up certain public works (roads, canals) that private individuals cannot afford


economic liberalism

- idea that gov should not interfere in the workings of the economy


Baron Paul d’Holbach

-1723-1789; German aristocrat; preached atheism and materialism
-System of Nature= 1770; everything in universe consisted of matter in motion
-Humans are machines; God was made from the imagination of humans and is unnecessary for leading a moral life
-ppl just need reason


Marie-Jean de Condorcet

-1743-1794; French philosophe; French Revolution
-The Progress of the Human Mind= humans progressed through 9 stages in history
-science and reason= 10th stage; perfection
-died in prison


Jean-Jacques Rousseau

-1712-1778; Geneva; studied music and classics; Paris→ philosophes
-Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind= humans’ state of nature was happiness→ no laws, no judges
-preserve private property= laws and governors→ no liberty→ chains
-gov= evil but necessary
-Social Contract


The Social Contract

- individual liberty w/ gov authority
-social contract= agreement on the part of an entire society to be governed by its general will (whatever is best for the community)
-true freedom= following laws that no one has imposed on oneself → → → creation of law could never be entrusted to a parliament


Mary Wollstonecraft

-1759-1797; English writer; founder of modern European feminism
-subjection of women was equally as wrong as monarchs over slave owners and slave owners over slaves
-Enlightenment was based on the idea that reason is natural in all humans
-if women have reason then they are entitled to the same rights as men



-17th century; elegant drawing rooms in urban, wealthy houses where philosophes and other ppl were invited and gathered to discuss the ideas of the Enlightenment