Unit 5 Fundamentals of Single case Experimental Design I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5 Fundamentals of Single case Experimental Design I Deck (45):
1

Repeated, systematic presentation and removal of an independent variable (or IV) While measuring changes in the dependent variable (or DV) and holding other factors constant

Experimental Design

2

To demonstrate a functional relation between the IV and DV
and
To evaluate the interventions once they are decided upon

The primary goals of systematic experimental manipulation

3

Changes in an antecedent or consequent stimulus class consistently alter a dimension of a response class

Functional relation

4

The extent to which an analysis assures that measured changes in behavior are due to the manipulation and not due to uncontrolled extraneous variables.

Internal validity

5

The extent to which a study’s results are generalizable to other subjects, settings, or behaviors.

External validity

6

History
Maturation
Testing
Instrumentation
Diffusion of treatment
Regression towards the mean
Selection bias
Attrition

Threats to internal validity

7

Measurement
Stability
Immediacy
Replication

Minimizing Validity Threats

8

The repeated and systematic presentation and removal of a treatment and measurement of behavior while holding other factors constant

Single-Case Designs

9

Assessment of the dependent variable prior to the introduction or change of the independent variable

Baseline

10

Movement in the analysis from one level or kind of independent variable to the next level or kind of independent variable

Phase change

11

Baseline phase followed by a treatment phase
Effect is demonstrated when behavior changes from one phase to the next

A-B Design

12

Baseline is followed by a treatment condition.

Withdrawal Design

13

An intervention is applied to the target behavior after a baseline phase

Reversal Design

14

Two or more independent baselines are established.
The independent variable is then separately introduced in a staggered fashion to each baseline.
When behavior is stable for the first baseline, the independent variable is introduced on the second baseline, and so on.

Multiple Baseline Design

15

First baseline is continuous, but subsequent baseline data collection is conducted on an intermittent basis relative to the first baseline

Multiple probe technique

16

In Applied Behavior Analysis, experimental designs involve the repeated and systematic presentation and removal of a(n) ___, while measuring changes in the ___, and holding potential ___ constant.
A) Independent variable; extraneous variables; dependent variables
B) Independent variable; Dependent variable; Extraneous variables
C) Dependent variable; Extraneous variables; Dependent variables
D) Dependent variable; Independent variable; Extraneous variables

B) Independent variable; Dependent variable; Extraneous variables

17

The two primary goals of the various experimental designs in Applied Behavior Analysis are to X and to Y .

A) X = Evaluate interventions once they are implemented; Y = Identify potential correlations between environmental events and changes in behavior
B) X = Demonstrate functional relations between the IV and the DV; Y = Evaluate interventions when implemented
C) X = Identify potential correlations between environmental events and changes in behavior; Y = Identify interventions that produce statistically significant changes in behavior
D) X = Demonstrate functional relations between the IV and the DV; Y = Identify potential correlations between environmental events and changes in behavior

B) X = Demonstrate functional relations between the IV and the DV; Y = Evaluate interventions when implemented

18

Experimental designs are concerned with which of the following?

W = internal validity

X = social validity

Y = external validity

Z = data validity

A) W and Z
B) X, Y, and Z
C) W and Y
D) W, X, and Y

C) W and Y

19

“The extent to which an experimental design demonstrates that measured changes in behavior are due to the systematic manipulation of the environment, and not due to uncontrolled extraneous variables” is a good definition for:
A) Internal validity
B) External validity
C) Treatment integrity
D) Social validity

A) Internal validity

20

Which of the following is considered the top priority in the experimental evaluation of interventions in Applied Behavior Analysis?
A) External validity
B) Internal validity
C) Identification of false positives
D) Social validity

B) Internal validity

21

Which of the following is not an extraneous variable that poses a threat to internal validity?

A) Diffusion of treatment
B) Testing
C) Maturation
D) Carryover effect

D) Carryover effect

22

Which threat to internal validity occurs when the introduction of the independent variable coincides with other events in the person’s life (often outside of the experimental context)?
A) Regression towards the mean
B) Testing
C) Diffusion of treatment
D) History

D) History

23

The “practice effect” threat to internal validity is more formally known as
A) Instrumentation
B) Selection bias
C) Testing
D) History

C) Testing

24

John, a behavior specialist at school, collects baseline data on Mary’s frequency of crying at school by observing for 2 consecutive days in her morning class session. After John implements an intervention, Mary’s crying during class data shows a sharp decrease. Later he learns that Mary was not sleeping well due to severe hay fever during those two days of baseline. What type of threat to internal validity does this represent in terms of the apparent effectiveness of treatment in reducing Mary’s crying at school?
A) Selection bias
B) Testing
C) Maturation
D) Regression towards the mean

D) Regression towards the mean

25

Nancy and Tara live together in a state-run residential facility for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Both exhibit several toilet accidents per day. Gerda implements a non-concurrent-multiple-baseline-across-subjects toileting program, with Nancy as the first subject. Part of the program involves providing Nancy with juice when she toilets appropriately. Nancy’s toileting quickly becomes independent. Another staff person, Louise, is watching all of this, and unknown to Gerda, Louise begins to give Tara juice whenever Tara toilets appropriately. When Gerda decides to implement the same procedure with Tara, and begins to collect baseline on Tara’s accidents, her rate of accidents is already near zero. What threat to the establishment of internal validity most likely occurred in this case?
A) Instrumentation
B) Selection bias
C) Regression toward the mean
D) Diffusion of treatment

D) Diffusion of treatment

26

Rob, a behavior analyst at a residential facility, is in charge of implementing a program to increase Jack’s tooth-brushing before going to bed. During baseline, Craig (a staff person) reports many refusals by Jack. After Bob’s written intervention is implemented, Jessie, a new staff person, reports that Jack still refuses to brush his teeth. Later on, Bob learns that Craig was reporting refusals appropriately – Jack had been going to bed without brushing during baseline— but that following the initial implementation of the program, Jack actually began to regularly brush his teeth before bed. However, Jessie has been incorrectly reporting “refusals” as Jack not brushing teeth within 5-minutes of her saying, “Jack it is time to brush teeth”. Since the program was implemented, Jack typically begins to brush teeth about 10 minutes after being asked to brush, and then goes to bed – which Jessie has been marking as a “refusal”. Jessie’s reporting of Jack’s delays in brushing as incidents of “refusal to brush” demonstrates which type of threat to internal validity?
A) History
B) Instrumentation
C) Regression towards the mean
D) Diffusion of treatment

B) Instrumentation

27

Which of the following threats to internal validity are LEAST likely to be relevant to single-subject designs?
A) Testing and maturation
B) History and diffusion of treatment
C) Instrumentation and maturation
D) Selection bias and attrition

D) Selection bias and attrition

28

Which of the following reduce threats to internal validity?

X = Establish stability of the behavior before changing phases

Y = Take repeated measurement of the dependent variable during all phases

Z = Probe components of the treatment during baseline to establish efficacy

A) X only
B) X, Y, and Z
C) Y only
D) X and Y but not Z

D) X and Y but not Z

29

This helps establish internal validity by demonstrating the effects of the independent variable across phase changes, as well as across behavior, subjects, settings, or even across studies.
A) Latency to change
B) History
C) Continuous assessment
D) Replication

D) Replication

30

In behavior analysis, single-case designs are used by _____________.
A) mainly by clinicians, since group designs are often used by researchers
B) researchers only, since these designs are difficult to apply in practice
C) both researchers and clinicians as the primary analytical method
D) researchers mainly, but now and then by clinicians with adequate resources

C) both researchers and clinicians as the primary analytical method

31

Single case designs are also known as

X = Single-study designs

Y = Single-subject designs

Z = Within-subject designs

A) X and Z but not Y
B) X, Y, and Z
C) X and Y but not Z
D) Y and Z but not X

D) Y and Z but not X

32

Which of the following statements about group designs is NOT true:

A) Each individual is exposed to every level of the IV
B) They do not allow for the examination of inter-subject variability
C) They generally have a large number of subjects and a small number of observations
D) They do not allow for the examination of intra-subject variability

A) Each individual is exposed to every level of the IV

33

Sandra, a behavior analyst, is testing the effects of using praise and edibles to increase the frequency of hand-raising behavior when questions are asked by the teacher. She is currently collecting baseline data on Jamesha’s performance, after which she will introduce the intervention, and compare baseline and treatment data for Jamesha. If the treatment appears successful, Sandra plans to withdraw treatment, and then re-initiate it a second time, collecting data throughout the process. This example best describes which design?

A) Within-subject design
B) Between-subject design
C) Group design
D) Across-subject design

A) Within-subject design

34

Which of the following statements does NOT apply to the single subject design?

A) All of these statements apply to single subject design
B) Inferential statistics are used for at least part of the analysis
C) A large number of observations are required
D) Inter-subject variability may be explored

B) Inferential statistics are used for at least part of the analysis

35

In a single-case design, the independent variable is typically introduced …

A) when the DV has stabilized within a reasonably narrow range around the trend
B) as soon as possible, once at least 3-6 baseline data points have been collected
C) according to a random number sequencer, to prevent experimental bias
D) when the dependent variable data are trending in the desired direction

A) when the DV has stabilized within a reasonably narrow range around the trend

36

Baseline is best defined as:
A) Assessment of the IV prior to a planned change in the DV
B) Assessment of a DV prior to the first systematic change in the IV
C) The first data collected on any behavior
D) Any data collected prior to treatment

B) Assessment of a DV prior to the first systematic change in the IV

Although typically defined as “pre-treatment data”, the term “baseline” does not necessarily mean data collected during a phase characterized by the complete absence of treatment. When data are first collected in an environment, some form of treatment, or even some haphazard procedures may be already in effect. Baseline, in its most formal sense, simply means the data collected before the start of systematic manipulations in the independent variable.

37

The phrase, “As long as necessary, as short as possible.” refers to :
A) A near zero level of data in baseline requires a revised response definition
B) Stability in treatment phase increases certainty about the effects of the IV, which allows for a very brief verification phase
C) The longer the baseline the better; the shorter the intervention the better
D) The need for stability in the baseline phase must be balanced against the need for an immediate intervention

D) The need for stability in the baseline phase must be balanced against the need for an immediate intervention

38

All of the following statements are true regarding an A—B design, EXCEPT:

A) The A—B design forms the basis for all common single-case designs
B) This design by itself supports only weak conclusions
C) Changes in the behavior could easily be the result of extraneous variables
D) Due to its limitations, this design can never demonstrate an effect

D) Due to its limitations, this design can never demonstrate an effect

39

Which of the following statements is true? You may introduce a new phase when
A) The behavior is already trending in the desired direction
B) All of these statements are true
C) The level of a behavior targeted for reduction is high enough to allow for the detection of a behavior change across phases
D) The range of all data points has a variability of no greater than 50% deviation from the mean level

C) The level of a behavior targeted for reduction is high enough to allow for the detection of a behavior change across phases

40

What three factors does one examine when determining “steady state” responding prior to an intervention change?
A) Variability, level, and trend
B) Range, variability, and level
C) Range, number of data points, and overlap
D) Mini-trend, number of data points, and range

A) Variability, level, and trend

41

Which of the following statements about the withdrawal design is false?
A) It does not require data stability prior to phase changes
B) It is the most straightforward single-case arrangement
C) It is the strongest at establishing internal validity
D) It can begin either with a no-treatment phase or a treatment phase

A) It does not require data stability prior to phase changes

42

Moe, Larry and Curley work in a restaurant, at a baseball park, and on a ship. They want to increase their arriving to work on time, staying at work to the end of the day, and getting back from lunch break on time. They hire a behavior analyst, Groucho, to help them with this problem. The behavior analyst begins by implementing a program for Moe, at the restaurant, for arriving on time. When Moe reaches the criterion for success, and exhibits stable on-time performance at the restaurant for 5 days, the behavior analyst next applies the intervention to Larry, and then to Curley. Which type of multiple baseline does this represent? Multiple baseline across…
A) Subjects, settings, and behaviors
B) Behaviors
C) Settings
D) Subjects

D) Subjects

43

Which of the following is NOT a major concern when using a multiple baseline design?

A) Long baselines increase the likelihood of effects from extraneous variables
B) Interdependent behaviors influence each other, and this may obscure results from a multiple-baseline across functionally related behavior design
C) Long baselines can lead to delays in treatment
D) All of these are concerns

D) All of these are concerns

44

What is one of the primary benefits of the multiple probe design?
A) All of these are benefits of the multiple probe design
B) More accurate than the multiple baseline due to more succinct data sets
C) Probes are always representative and allow for a more accurate of stability
D) Reduces the data collection requirement on caregivers, which may be impractical or costly

D) Reduces the data collection requirement on caregivers, which may be impractical or costly

45

The multiple baseline design is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
A) Dependent variables must be functionally related
B) Each dependent variable is exposed to the same independent variable at different times
C) Intervention occurs on the most stable baseline first
D) Dependent variables must be interdependent

D) Dependent variables must be interdependent