Unit 5- States of Consciousness (2-4%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5- States of Consciousness (2-4%) Deck (46):
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Latent content

According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)

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Activation-synthesis theory

Neural activity is random, and dreams are our brains trying to understand it.

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Sleepwalking

Performing motor acts while sleeping and then not remembering when you awaken.

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REM Rebound

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.

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Hypnosis

An artificially induced trance state resembling sleep.

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Psychoanalytic dream theory

the process of explaining the meaning of the way the unconscious thoughts and emotions are processed in the mind during sleep.

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Manifest Content

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its hidden or latent content)

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Circadian Rhythms

Biological clock, regular body rhythms

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Sleep

Periodic, natural loss of consciousness. Not the same as unconsciousness in coma or hibernation.

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Effects of sleep deprivation

Hunger
High stress
Less productivity
More mistakes
Irritability
Fatigue

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REM Sleep

Dream sleep (vivid dreams)
Rapid eye movement sleep
Muscles are relaxed while other body systems are active

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NREM Sleep

Non rapid eye movement sleep
Encompasses all stages of sleep except REM (Stages 1-4)

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Consciousness

Awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Examples: States of Consciesness
Sleep, wake, altered states (drugs, daydreaming, hypnosis)

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Electroencephalograph (EEG)

A machine that records rapid eye movement and brain wave patterns. It's used to study sleep patterns.

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Hypnagogic State

Occurs in stage 1 of sleep. It's when your body may suddenly jerk or when your floating weightlessly. These sensations may later be converted into memories.

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Stage 2 Sleep

Sleep spindles appear and you start to relax more deeply during this stage.

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Stage 4 Sleep

Your brain emits large, slow delta waves. You are hard to awaken during this stage. Bed wetting and sleep walking are most likely to occur in this stage.

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Dreams

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.

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Night Terrors

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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Hallucinations

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

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Delta Waves

Large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

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Insomnia

Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

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Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The suffer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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Sleep Apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

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Alpha Waves

The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

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Psychological Dependence

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to release negative emotions.

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Depressants

Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

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Examples of Depressant Drugs

Alcohol, Heroin

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Alcohol

A depressant drug, calms neural activity and slows body functions.

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Stimulants

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

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Caffeine

A stimulant drug, the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substance.

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Amphetamine

Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

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Lucid Dreaming

The ability to be aware of and direct dreams.

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Posthypnotic suggestion

A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized

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Dissociation

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

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Meditation

A spiritual practice and a form of alternative medicine that aims to provide physical relaxation and mental clarity

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Psychoactive drugs

A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods

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Tolerance

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the use to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

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Withdrawal

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

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Physical dependence

A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

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Cocaine

Central nervous system stimulant that depletes the brain of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine

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Nicotine

Highly addictive, mild stimulant found in tobacco.

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Narcotics

Examples include codeine and morphine which are most often prescribed for pain relief

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Opiates

Opium and its derivatives. Depress neural functioning and cause pain relief and anxiety relief. Highly addictive.

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Hallucinogens

Drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory experiences in the absence of sensory input. LSD and marijuana fall under this category.

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LSD

A powerful hallucinogen that can cause vivid hallucinations