Unit 6 Flashcards Preview

Straightforward Upper-intermediate > Unit 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 6 Deck (226):
1

elect

(z)volit (si) *** v /ɪˈlekt/ to choose someone by voting so that they represent you or hold an official position The council is elected by popular vote.

2

childcare

péče o děti n U /ˈtʃaɪldˌkeə(r)/ the job of looking after children, especially while their parents are working She thinks that politicians should talk about equal pay and childcare.

3

make matters worse

zhoršit situaci phr /ˌmeɪk mætə(r)z ˈwɜː(r)s/ to make a situation worse A red-faced Gloystein made matters worse by attempting to be ‘friends’ with Mr Oelschlager.

4

bright

jasný; bystrý; zářivý *** adj /braɪt/ bright colours are strong but not dark He went bright red.

5

philosophical

filozofický ** adj /ˌfɪləˈsɒfɪk(ə)l/ relating to philosophy We spent the evening discussing philosophical problems. He's a professor of philosophy.

6

spin doctor

expert na politickou propagandu n C /ˈspɪn ˌdɒktə(r)/ someone whose job is to give journalists information that makes a politician or an organization seem as good as possible The government relies too heavily on spin doctors.

7

offend

urazit; spáchat přestupek * v /əˈfend/ to make someone upset and angry by doing or saying something They avoided saying anything that might offend their audience.

8

get the sack

dostat vyhazov, vyletět /ˌɡet ðə ˈsæk/ to lose your job, especially for doing something wrong Have you heard the news about Frank getting the sack?

9

humiliating

ponižující; zesměšňující adj /hjuːˈmɪliˌeɪtɪŋ/ making you feel very embarrassed and ashamed It was a humiliating mistake.

10

socialism

socialismus ** n U /ˈsəʊʃəˌlɪz(ə)m/ a political system that aims to create a society in which everyone has equal opportunities and in which the most important industries are owned or controlled by the whole community The country is moving towards socialism.

11

acutely

silně; naléhavě adv /əˈkjuːtli/ used for emphasizing that a feeling, often an unpleasant one, is very strong The situation brought back memories that were acutely painful.

12

fair

spravedlivý *** adj /feə(r)/ if a situation is fair, everyone is treated equally and in a reasonable way The country will hold its first free and fair elections in the summer.

13

chancellor

kancléř n C /ˈtʃɑːnsələ(r)/  the leader of the government in some countries, for example Germany and Austria The Germans elected a woman Chancellor.

14

mess (sth) up

zpackat; zaneřádit phr /ˌmes ˈʌp/ to make something dirty or untidy They had managed to mess up the whole office.

15

cruise

plavit se * v /kruːz/ to sail in a ship for pleasure, especially to a series of places The first week was spent cruising around the Baltic.

16

issue

věc *** n C /ˈɪʃuː/ /ˈɪsjuː/ a subject that people discuss or argue about, especially relating to society, politics etc It’s a website devoted to environmental issues.

17

representative

zástupce *** n C /ˌreprɪˈzentətɪv/ someone who has been chosen or elected by a person or group to vote, give opinions, or make decisions for them She's an elected representative.

18

grant

poskytnout; připustit *** v /ɡrɑːnt/ to allow someone to have or do what they want The Board has refused to grant your request.

19

compulsory

povinný ** adj /kəmˈpʌlsəri/ something that is compulsory must be done because of a rule or law School uniform is no longer compulsory in many British schools.

20

philosophy

filozofie *** n U /fɪˈlɒsəfi/ "the study of theories about the meaning of things such as life, knowledge, and beliefs He studied politics and philosophy."

21

ballot paper

volební lístek n C /ˈbælət ˌpeɪpə(r)/ a ballot that you write your vote on The ballot paper lists every candidate standing for election in alphabetical order.

22

resign

odstoupit; vzdát se funkce *** v  /rɪˈzaɪn/  to state formally that you are leaving a job permanently It now seems clear that she will resign her directorship immediately.

23

parliament

parlament *** n U /ˈpɑː(r)ləmənt/ the main law-making institution in some countries. In the UK, Parliament consists of politicians elected to the House of Commons and members of the House of Lords Most of the seats in Parliament are won by the main political parties.

24

turnout

účast n C /ˈtɜː(r)naʊt/ the number of voters in an election We’re expecting quite a low turnout for the local elections.

25

horrified

zděšený adj /ˈhɒrɪfaɪd/ very shocked or frightened Police were horrified to discover a child’s body in the empty building.

26

blush

červenat se * v /blʌʃ/ if you blush, your cheeks become red because you feel embarrassed or ashamed ‘A few of the girls were after me,’ he recalled, blushing slightly.

27

ad

reklama; inzerát n C /æd/ an advertisement He put an ad in the local paper.

28

stand for

symbolizovat; znamenat v /ˈstænd fɔː(r)/ to try to get chosen in an election for a particular position or as a member of a particular institution. In American English, you say that someone runs for office She is intending to stand for Parliament.

29

ashamed

(be ~) stydět se; ostýchat se ** adj /əˈʃeɪmd/ feeling guilty or embarrassed because you have done something wrong, or think that you have not reached a standard that people expect He’s extremely ashamed of his behaviour last night.

30

realism

realismus * n U /ˈrɪəˌlɪz(ə)m/ the ability to accept events and situations as they really are and to deal with them in a practical way Though a romantic at heart, she had a strong streak of realism.

31

proceedings

postup; opatření ** n pl /prəˈsiːdɪŋz/ an event or series of related events Martin kicked off the proceedings with a stunning performance of his new hit single.

32

provoke

dráždit; provokovat ** v /prəˈvəʊk/ to deliberately try to make someone angry He’s just trying to provoke you.

33

outcome

výsledek; závěr *** n C /ˈaʊtˌkʌm/ the final result of a process, meeting, activity, etc So we’re not really arguing about the end, the outcome, it’s about how we get there.

34

democratic

demokratický *** adj /ˌdeməˈkrætɪk/ involving elections in which people vote for their political representatives We wouldn’t have a democratic system if people hadn’t fought for the right to vote.

35

refer to (sth)

mluvit o; odvolávat se na *** v /rɪˈfɜː(r) tuː/ to describe something, or to be about something The term ‘groupware’ refers to software designed to be used by several computer users at once.

36

racism

rasismus * n U /ˈreɪˌsɪz(ə)m/ a way of behaving or thinking that shows that you do not like or respect people who belong to races that are different from your own and that you believe your race is better than others There have been allegations of racism against the police.

37

object to (sth)

namítat; protestovat * v /ɒbˈdʒekt tuː/ to be opposed to something, or to express your opposition to it in words Local residents objected to the proposed development.

38

pour

(na)lít; (na)sypat *** v /pɔː(r)/ to make a liquid or substance flow out of a container that you are holding He poured the last of his drink down the sink.

39

pacifism

pacifismus n U /ˈpæsɪˌfɪz(ə)m/ the belief that violence is wrong and that people should refuse to fight in wars My pacifism is an instinctive feeling.

40

head of state

hlava státu n C /ˌhed əv ˈsteɪt/ the leader of a country, for example a king, queen, or president Heads of state gathered to mark the organization's 65th anniversary.

41

oversee

dohlížet; kontrolovat v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsiː/ to watch something in order to check that it works or happens in the way that it should It's one of the government agencies that oversee the airline industry.

42

pessimism

pesimismus n U /ˈpesəˌmɪz(ə)m/ the attitude of someone who thinks that the worst thing will happen in every situation I share your pessimism about the situation.

43

apathy

otupělost; netečnost n U /ˈæpəθi/ a feeling of having no interest in or enthusiasm about anything, or of not being willing to make any effort to change things We need to solve the problem of public apathy towards politics.

44

magnum

velká láhev na víno n C /ˈmæɡnəm/ a large bottle that holds 1.5 litres The group of us shared a magnum of champagne.

45

self-conscious

nesmělý, rozpačitý adj /self ˈkɒnʃəs/ embarrassed or worried about how you look or what other people think of you Knowing they were watching me made me feel very self-conscious.

46

general election

všeobecné volby n /ˌdʒen(ə)rəl ɪˈlekʃ(ə)n/ an election in which every adult in the country can vote for the people who will represent them in parliament He announced that a general election will be held in the spring.

47

optimism

optimismus * n U /ˈɒptɪˌmɪzəm/ a tendency to be hopeful and to expect that good things will probably happen There's still a degree of optimism that the leaders will deliver something.

48

supervise

dohlížet na něco, kontrolovat ** v /ˈsuːpə(r)vaɪz/ to be in charge of an activity or a place and to check that things are done correctly He’s supposed to be supervising other people’s work, not having his work supervised!

49

press charges

vznést obvinění phr /pres ˈtʃɑː(r)dʒ/ to officially accuse someone of committing a crime The police asked him if he wanted to press charges.

50

tearful

uplakaný; smutný adj /ˈtɪə(r)f(ə)l/ crying, or feeling as if you want to cry A tearful Oelschlager refused the offer.

51

secretarial

sekretářský, administrativní adj /ˌsekrəˈteəriəl/ relating to the work or skills of a secretary We need to hire more secretarial staff.

52

graduate

absolvent vysoké školy ** n C /ˈɡrædʒuət/ someone who has a degree from a university There are many possible careers for philosophy graduates.

53

un-PC

člověk, který není společensky nezávadný adj /ˌʌn piːˈsiː/ not politically correct. Politically correct language or behaviour is not offensive, especially to people who have often been affected by discrimination (=unfair treatment) He was sacked for being totally un-PC.

54

red-faced

zrudlý (rozčilením nebo rozpaky) adj /ˌredˈfeɪst/ with a red face, because of being embarrassed, angry, or hot The star was left red-faced by the revelations.

55

posting

odeslání poštou; sdělení skupině lidí n C /ˈpəʊstɪŋ/ a message sent over the Internet to a newsgroup etc I read a posting in the comments section of the article.

56

constituency

volební obvod ** n C /kənˈstɪtjʊənsi/ a division of a country that elects a representative to a parliament MPs have a duty to represent the views of their constituency.

57

discrimination

diskriminace ** n U  /dɪˌskrɪmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ unfair treatment of someone because of their religion, race, or other personal features Ms Howell claimed she had been the victim of sexual discrimination.

58

deputy leader

náměstek, zástupce n C /ˌdepjʊti ˈliːdə(r)/ someone whose job is the second most important in a department or organization, and who takes the responsibilities of the most important person in some situations Peter Gloystein, the deputy leader of the German state of Bremen, caused acute embarrassment to the centre-right Christian Democrat party.

59

alienate

odcizit (se) v /ˈeɪliəneɪt/ to make someone feel that they do not belong in a place or group Quotas will simply alienate an awful lot of people.

60

own up to (sth)

přiznat se k něčemu phr /ˌəʊn ˈʌp tuː/ to admit that you have done something bad or embarrassing Two local students later owned up to the prank.

61

ageism

diskriminace starých lidí n U /ˈeɪdʒɪz(ə)m/ the practice of treating older people in an unfair or insulting way, for example by not giving them jobs Veteran presenters have attacked what they see as ageism by TV bosses.

62

democracy

demokracie *** n C/U /dɪˈmɒkrəsi/ a system of government in which people vote in elections to choose the people who will govern them It can be seen as a threat to democracy.

63

democrat

demokrat * n C /ˈdeməkræt/ someone who supports democracy as a political system This bill will be welcomed by democrats everywhere.

64

candidate

kandidát; uchazeč *** n C /ˈkændɪdeɪt/ /ˈkændɪdət/ one of the people competing in an election He will be the Conservative candidate at the next election.

65

grounds

základ tvrzení n pl /ɡraʊndz/ a reason for what you say or do, or for being allowed to say or do something Those were not grounds for dismissal.

66

sexism

diskriminace podle pohlaví n U /ˈseksɪz(ə)m/ the belief that men and women should be treated in a different way and are suited to different types of jobs and different positions in society The interview concluded with a discussion of what can be done to combat sexism in society.

67

electorate

voliči n C  /ɪˈlekt(ə)rət/ all the people who are allowed to vote in an election It's a policy designed to appeal to all sections of the electorate.

68

idealism

idealismus n U  /aɪˈdɪəˌlɪz(ə)m/ a very strong belief in something which is good but probably impossible to achieve She was always letting her idealism get in the way of practicalities.

69

offensive

pohoršlivý; nepřístojný * adj /əˈfensɪv/ unpleasant or insulting, and likely to make people upset or embarrassed They've banned books containing offensive language.

70

close range

zblízka, z těsné blízkosti phr /ˌkləʊs ˈreɪndʒ/ only a short distance away, or separated by only a short distance Craig Evans, threw an egg at him from close range.

71

competent

kompetentní ** adj /ˈkɒmpɪtənt/ capable of doing something in a satisfactory or effective way She's a very competent worker.

72

scribble

(na)čmárat (nečitelně) v /ˈskrɪb(ə)l/ to write something quickly and carelessly He scribbles something down.

73

foot and mouth disease

slintavka a kulhavka n U /ˌfʊt ən ˈmaʊθ dɪˌziːz/ a very infectious disease of sheep, cows, and pigs There has been an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.

74

right

pravý; správný *** n C /raɪt/ something that you are morally or legally allowed to do or have You have no right to come barging in here like that.

75

Member of Parliament

poslanec * n C /ˌmembə(r) əv ˈpɑː(r)ləmənt/ someone who people have elected to represent them in a parliament. Members of Parliament are usually called MPs He's the Member of Parliament for Bethnal Green.

76

liability

přítěž ** n U /ˌlaɪəˈbɪləti/ someone or something that causes problems for someone The man’s a liability!

77

centre-right

středo-pravý adj /ˌsentə(r)ˈraɪt/ if a party is centre-right it is right-wing but not very strongly The president’s centre-right party has won 97% of the constituencies.

78

promptly

okamžitě; pohotově * adv /ˈprɒmptli/ used for saying that someone does something immediately after doing another thing when this is surprising He offered to help, then promptly forgot.

79

blank

prázdný; nepopsaný ** adj /blæŋk/ blank paper or a blank space is empty and contains no writing or other marks Write your name in the blank space at the top of the page.

80

humiliating

ponižující; zesměšňující adj /hjuːˈmɪliˌeɪtɪŋ/ making you feel very embarrassed and ashamed They've mad a humiliating mistake.

81

on purpose

záměrně adv /ɒn ˈpɜː(r)pəs/ deliberately Did you do that on purpose?

82

commit to

zavázat se k něčemu v /kəˈmɪt tuː/ to promise to do something Encourage your client to commit to their goals.

83

memo

oběžník, zpráva n C /ˈmeməʊ/ a short note that you send to someone who you work with She sent a memo to her staff telling them about the change.

84

sure as hell

naprosto jisté phr /ˌʃɔː(r) əz ˈhel/ used for saying that something is very certain Sure as hell should be!

85

bribe

podplatit v /braɪb/ to give money or presents to someone so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal They were found guilty of trying to bribe officials.

86

outbreak

vzplanutí, vypuknutí * n C /ˈaʊtˌbreɪk/ the sudden start of war, disease, violence etc An outbreak of food poisoning led to the deaths of five people.

87

candidate

kandidát; uchazeč ** n C /hiːl/ one of the people competing for a job The ideal candidate will have excellent secretarial skills, a good phone manner and a smart appearance.

88

condescending

povýšený; přehlíživý adj /ˌkɒndɪˈsendɪŋ/ showing that you think you are more important or more intelligent than other people She spoke to me in a very condescending manner.

89

nationalism

nacionalismus * n U /ˈnæʃ(ə)nəˌlɪz(ə)m/ the wish for political independence of a group of people with the same language, culture, history, etc. Some people in Scotland support Scottish nationalism.

90

suffragette

bojovnice za ženská práva n C /ˌsʌfrəˈdʒet/ in the UK and US, a woman who took part in public protests about giving women the right to vote in the early 1900s The importance of the suffragette movement should not be underestimated.

91

squirm

propadat se hanbou v /skwɜː(r)m/ to look or feel embarrassed and uncomfortable He squirmed under the journalist's questioning.

92

parliamentary

parlamentní ** adj /ˌpɑː(r)ləˈment(ə)ri/ relating to a parliament or suitable for a parliament They took part in a parliamentary debate.

93

approachable

přístupný; přátelský adj /əˈprəʊtʃəb(ə)l/ someone who is approachable is friendly and easy to talk to The staff are all very friendly and approachable.

94

launch

(vy/s)pustit; (vy/s)puštění ** v /lɔːntʃ/ an occasion when a company starts selling a new product or service to the public He attended the launch of the German Wine Week.

95

punch

udeřit pěstí; procviknout * v  /pʌntʃ/  to hit someone or something with your fist (=closed hand), usually as hard as you can Two men punched him, knocking him to the ground.

96

spark

jiskra, jiskřit, podnítit n C /spɑː(r)k/ the quality of being lively and original The performance was short on spark and creativity.

97

respect

ohled; hledisko ** v /rɪˈspekt/ a feeling of admiration that you have for someone because of their personal qualities, their achievements, or their status, and that you show by treating them in a polite and kind way She has worked hard to gain the respect of her colleagues.

98

elitism

elitářsví n U  /ɪˈliːˌtɪz(ə)m/ the belief that a small group of people who have a lot of advantages should keep the most power and influence The older universities were accused of elitism.

99

engineer

inženýr; technik *** n C /ˌendʒɪˈnɪə(r)/ someone who designs or builds things such as roads, railroads, bridges, or machines He’s an excellent engineer.

100

articulate

formulovat adj /ɑː(r)ˈtɪkjʊlət/ able to express your thoughts, arguments, and ideas clearly and effectively She is a highly articulate woman.

101

macho

drsný chlap adj /ˈmætʃəʊ/ behaving in a way traditionally considered typical of a man, for example by being strong and willing to fight, and by hiding your feelings Colin likes to kid everyone he’s the big macho tough guy.

102

discussion forum

diskusní fórum n C /dɪˈskʌʃ(ə)n ˌfɔːrəm/ a website where people can express their ideas and opinions Read the postings on a discussion forum.

103

dismissal

propustění z práce ** n C /dɪsˈmɪs(ə)l/ an act of making someone leave their job Those were not fair grounds for dismissal.

104

determine

určit, stanovit ** v /dɪˈtɜː(r)mɪn/ to control what something will be She claims that most human behaviour is socially determined.

105

polling station

volební místnost n C /ˈpəʊlɪŋ ˌsteɪʃ(ə)n/ a building where people go to vote in an election The local school is being used as a polling station.

106

moderate

umírněný ** adj /ˈmɒd(ə)rət/ reasonable and avoiding extreme opinions or actions She was on the moderate wing of the party.

107

wheel around

zprudka se otočit, změnit názor v /ˌwiːl əˈraʊnd/ to turn around quickly where you are standing She wheeled around and glared at me.

108

quota system

přídělový systém n C /ˈkwəʊtə ˌsɪstəm/ a system in which someone has to do or have a certain amount of something The quota system, sometimes referred to as ‘positive discrimination’, is not popular with everyone.

109

assailant

útočník n C /əˈseɪlənt/  someone who violently attacks another person She was able to fight off her assailant.

110

tackle

vypořádat se (s problémem) * v /ˈtæk(ə)l/ to make an organized and determined attempt to deal with a problem, often a social problem such as crime or unemployment Successive governments have failed to tackle the question of homelessness.

111

union

unie; odbory *** n C /ˈjuːnjən/ an organization that represents the workers in a particular industry and tries to improve pay, conditions etc We encourage all employees to join a union.

112

brush (sth) off

odbýt; odmítnout v /brʌʃ ˈɒf/ to refuse to listen to someone, or to accept that something might be true or important The Foreign Secretary brushed off suggestions that he had considered resigning.

113

fuss

hluk; poprask * n U /fʌs/ a lot of unnecessary worry or excitement about something What is all the fuss about?

114

(z)volit (si) *** v /ɪˈlekt/ to choose someone by voting so that they represent you or hold an official position The council is elected by popular vote.

elect

115

péče o děti n U /ˈtʃaɪldˌkeə(r)/ the job of looking after children, especially while their parents are working She thinks that politicians should talk about equal pay and childcare.

childcare

116

zhoršit situaci phr /ˌmeɪk mætə(r)z ˈwɜː(r)s/ to make a situation worse A red-faced Gloystein made matters worse by attempting to be ‘friends’ with Mr Oelschlager.

make matters worse

117

jasný; bystrý; zářivý *** adj /braɪt/ bright colours are strong but not dark He went bright red.

bright

118

filozofický ** adj /ˌfɪləˈsɒfɪk(ə)l/ relating to philosophy We spent the evening discussing philosophical problems. He's a professor of philosophy.

philosophical

119

expert na politickou propagandu n C /ˈspɪn ˌdɒktə(r)/ someone whose job is to give journalists information that makes a politician or an organization seem as good as possible The government relies too heavily on spin doctors.

spin doctor

120

urazit; spáchat přestupek * v /əˈfend/ to make someone upset and angry by doing or saying something They avoided saying anything that might offend their audience.

offend

121

dostat vyhazov, vyletět /ˌɡet ðə ˈsæk/ to lose your job, especially for doing something wrong Have you heard the news about Frank getting the sack?

get the sack

122

ponižující; zesměšňující adj /hjuːˈmɪliˌeɪtɪŋ/ making you feel very embarrassed and ashamed It was a humiliating mistake.

humiliating

123

socialismus ** n U /ˈsəʊʃəˌlɪz(ə)m/ a political system that aims to create a society in which everyone has equal opportunities and in which the most important industries are owned or controlled by the whole community The country is moving towards socialism.

socialism

124

silně; naléhavě adv /əˈkjuːtli/ used for emphasizing that a feeling, often an unpleasant one, is very strong The situation brought back memories that were acutely painful.

acutely

125

spravedlivý *** adj /feə(r)/ if a situation is fair, everyone is treated equally and in a reasonable way The country will hold its first free and fair elections in the summer.

fair

126

kancléř n C /ˈtʃɑːnsələ(r)/  the leader of the government in some countries, for example Germany and Austria The Germans elected a woman Chancellor.

chancellor

127

zpackat; zaneřádit phr /ˌmes ˈʌp/ to make something dirty or untidy They had managed to mess up the whole office.

mess (sth) up

128

plavit se * v /kruːz/ to sail in a ship for pleasure, especially to a series of places The first week was spent cruising around the Baltic.

cruise

129

věc *** n C /ˈɪʃuː/ /ˈɪsjuː/ a subject that people discuss or argue about, especially relating to society, politics etc It’s a website devoted to environmental issues.

issue

130

zástupce *** n C /ˌreprɪˈzentətɪv/ someone who has been chosen or elected by a person or group to vote, give opinions, or make decisions for them She's an elected representative.

representative

131

poskytnout; připustit *** v /ɡrɑːnt/ to allow someone to have or do what they want The Board has refused to grant your request.

grant

132

povinný ** adj /kəmˈpʌlsəri/ something that is compulsory must be done because of a rule or law School uniform is no longer compulsory in many British schools.

compulsory

133

filozofie *** n U /fɪˈlɒsəfi/ "the study of theories about the meaning of things such as life, knowledge, and beliefs He studied politics and philosophy."

philosophy

134

volební lístek n C /ˈbælət ˌpeɪpə(r)/ a ballot that you write your vote on The ballot paper lists every candidate standing for election in alphabetical order.

ballot paper

135

odstoupit; vzdát se funkce *** v  /rɪˈzaɪn/  to state formally that you are leaving a job permanently It now seems clear that she will resign her directorship immediately.

resign

136

parlament *** n U /ˈpɑː(r)ləmənt/ the main law-making institution in some countries. In the UK, Parliament consists of politicians elected to the House of Commons and members of the House of Lords Most of the seats in Parliament are won by the main political parties.

parliament

137

účast n C /ˈtɜː(r)naʊt/ the number of voters in an election We’re expecting quite a low turnout for the local elections.

turnout

138

zděšený adj /ˈhɒrɪfaɪd/ very shocked or frightened Police were horrified to discover a child’s body in the empty building.

horrified

139

červenat se * v /blʌʃ/ if you blush, your cheeks become red because you feel embarrassed or ashamed ‘A few of the girls were after me,’ he recalled, blushing slightly.

blush

140

reklama; inzerát n C /æd/ an advertisement He put an ad in the local paper.

ad

141

symbolizovat; znamenat v /ˈstænd fɔː(r)/ to try to get chosen in an election for a particular position or as a member of a particular institution. In American English, you say that someone runs for office She is intending to stand for Parliament.

stand for

142

(be ~) stydět se; ostýchat se ** adj /əˈʃeɪmd/ feeling guilty or embarrassed because you have done something wrong, or think that you have not reached a standard that people expect He’s extremely ashamed of his behaviour last night.

ashamed

143

realismus * n U /ˈrɪəˌlɪz(ə)m/ the ability to accept events and situations as they really are and to deal with them in a practical way Though a romantic at heart, she had a strong streak of realism.

realism

144

postup; opatření ** n pl /prəˈsiːdɪŋz/ an event or series of related events Martin kicked off the proceedings with a stunning performance of his new hit single.

proceedings

145

dráždit; provokovat ** v /prəˈvəʊk/ to deliberately try to make someone angry He’s just trying to provoke you.

provoke

146

výsledek; závěr *** n C /ˈaʊtˌkʌm/ the final result of a process, meeting, activity, etc So we’re not really arguing about the end, the outcome, it’s about how we get there.

outcome

147

demokratický *** adj /ˌdeməˈkrætɪk/ involving elections in which people vote for their political representatives We wouldn’t have a democratic system if people hadn’t fought for the right to vote.

democratic

148

mluvit o; odvolávat se na *** v /rɪˈfɜː(r) tuː/ to describe something, or to be about something The term ‘groupware’ refers to software designed to be used by several computer users at once.

refer to (sth)

149

rasismus * n U /ˈreɪˌsɪz(ə)m/ a way of behaving or thinking that shows that you do not like or respect people who belong to races that are different from your own and that you believe your race is better than others There have been allegations of racism against the police.

racism

150

namítat; protestovat * v /ɒbˈdʒekt tuː/ to be opposed to something, or to express your opposition to it in words Local residents objected to the proposed development.

object to (sth)

151

(na)lít; (na)sypat *** v /pɔː(r)/ to make a liquid or substance flow out of a container that you are holding He poured the last of his drink down the sink.

pour

152

pacifismus n U /ˈpæsɪˌfɪz(ə)m/ the belief that violence is wrong and that people should refuse to fight in wars My pacifism is an instinctive feeling.

pacifism

153

hlava státu n C /ˌhed əv ˈsteɪt/ the leader of a country, for example a king, queen, or president Heads of state gathered to mark the organization's 65th anniversary.

head of state

154

dohlížet; kontrolovat v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsiː/ to watch something in order to check that it works or happens in the way that it should It's one of the government agencies that oversee the airline industry.

oversee

155

pesimismus n U /ˈpesəˌmɪz(ə)m/ the attitude of someone who thinks that the worst thing will happen in every situation I share your pessimism about the situation.

pessimism

156

otupělost; netečnost n U /ˈæpəθi/ a feeling of having no interest in or enthusiasm about anything, or of not being willing to make any effort to change things We need to solve the problem of public apathy towards politics.

apathy

157

velká láhev na víno n C /ˈmæɡnəm/ a large bottle that holds 1.5 litres The group of us shared a magnum of champagne.

magnum

158

nesmělý, rozpačitý adj /self ˈkɒnʃəs/ embarrassed or worried about how you look or what other people think of you Knowing they were watching me made me feel very self-conscious.

self-conscious

159

všeobecné volby n /ˌdʒen(ə)rəl ɪˈlekʃ(ə)n/ an election in which every adult in the country can vote for the people who will represent them in parliament He announced that a general election will be held in the spring.

general election

160

optimismus * n U /ˈɒptɪˌmɪzəm/ a tendency to be hopeful and to expect that good things will probably happen There's still a degree of optimism that the leaders will deliver something.

optimism

161

dohlížet na něco, kontrolovat ** v /ˈsuːpə(r)vaɪz/ to be in charge of an activity or a place and to check that things are done correctly He’s supposed to be supervising other people’s work, not having his work supervised!

supervise

162

vznést obvinění phr /pres ˈtʃɑː(r)dʒ/ to officially accuse someone of committing a crime The police asked him if he wanted to press charges.

press charges

163

uplakaný; smutný adj /ˈtɪə(r)f(ə)l/ crying, or feeling as if you want to cry A tearful Oelschlager refused the offer.

tearful

164

sekretářský, administrativní adj /ˌsekrəˈteəriəl/ relating to the work or skills of a secretary We need to hire more secretarial staff.

secretarial

165

absolvent vysoké školy ** n C /ˈɡrædʒuət/ someone who has a degree from a university There are many possible careers for philosophy graduates.

graduate

166

člověk, který není společensky nezávadný adj /ˌʌn piːˈsiː/ not politically correct. Politically correct language or behaviour is not offensive, especially to people who have often been affected by discrimination (=unfair treatment) He was sacked for being totally un-PC.

un-PC

167

zrudlý (rozčilením nebo rozpaky) adj /ˌredˈfeɪst/ with a red face, because of being embarrassed, angry, or hot The star was left red-faced by the revelations.

red-faced

168

odeslání poštou; sdělení skupině lidí n C /ˈpəʊstɪŋ/ a message sent over the Internet to a newsgroup etc I read a posting in the comments section of the article.

posting

169

volební obvod ** n C /kənˈstɪtjʊənsi/ a division of a country that elects a representative to a parliament MPs have a duty to represent the views of their constituency.

constituency

170

diskriminace ** n U  /dɪˌskrɪmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ unfair treatment of someone because of their religion, race, or other personal features Ms Howell claimed she had been the victim of sexual discrimination.

discrimination

171

náměstek, zástupce n C /ˌdepjʊti ˈliːdə(r)/ someone whose job is the second most important in a department or organization, and who takes the responsibilities of the most important person in some situations Peter Gloystein, the deputy leader of the German state of Bremen, caused acute embarrassment to the centre-right Christian Democrat party.

deputy leader

172

odcizit (se) v /ˈeɪliəneɪt/ to make someone feel that they do not belong in a place or group Quotas will simply alienate an awful lot of people.

alienate

173

přiznat se k něčemu phr /ˌəʊn ˈʌp tuː/ to admit that you have done something bad or embarrassing Two local students later owned up to the prank.

own up to (sth)

174

diskriminace starých lidí n U /ˈeɪdʒɪz(ə)m/ the practice of treating older people in an unfair or insulting way, for example by not giving them jobs Veteran presenters have attacked what they see as ageism by TV bosses.

ageism

175

demokracie *** n C/U /dɪˈmɒkrəsi/ a system of government in which people vote in elections to choose the people who will govern them It can be seen as a threat to democracy.

democracy

176

demokrat * n C /ˈdeməkræt/ someone who supports democracy as a political system This bill will be welcomed by democrats everywhere.

democrat

177

kandidát; uchazeč *** n C /ˈkændɪdeɪt/ /ˈkændɪdət/ one of the people competing in an election He will be the Conservative candidate at the next election.

candidate

178

základ tvrzení n pl /ɡraʊndz/ a reason for what you say or do, or for being allowed to say or do something Those were not grounds for dismissal.

grounds

179

diskriminace podle pohlaví n U /ˈseksɪz(ə)m/ the belief that men and women should be treated in a different way and are suited to different types of jobs and different positions in society The interview concluded with a discussion of what can be done to combat sexism in society.

sexism

180

voliči n C  /ɪˈlekt(ə)rət/ all the people who are allowed to vote in an election It's a policy designed to appeal to all sections of the electorate.

electorate

181

idealismus n U  /aɪˈdɪəˌlɪz(ə)m/ a very strong belief in something which is good but probably impossible to achieve She was always letting her idealism get in the way of practicalities.

idealism

182

pohoršlivý; nepřístojný * adj /əˈfensɪv/ unpleasant or insulting, and likely to make people upset or embarrassed They've banned books containing offensive language.

offensive

183

zblízka, z těsné blízkosti phr /ˌkləʊs ˈreɪndʒ/ only a short distance away, or separated by only a short distance Craig Evans, threw an egg at him from close range.

close range

184

kompetentní ** adj /ˈkɒmpɪtənt/ capable of doing something in a satisfactory or effective way She's a very competent worker.

competent

185

(na)čmárat (nečitelně) v /ˈskrɪb(ə)l/ to write something quickly and carelessly He scribbles something down.

scribble

186

slintavka a kulhavka n U /ˌfʊt ən ˈmaʊθ dɪˌziːz/ a very infectious disease of sheep, cows, and pigs There has been an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.

foot and mouth disease

187

pravý; správný *** n C /raɪt/ something that you are morally or legally allowed to do or have You have no right to come barging in here like that.

right

188

poslanec * n C /ˌmembə(r) əv ˈpɑː(r)ləmənt/ someone who people have elected to represent them in a parliament. Members of Parliament are usually called MPs He's the Member of Parliament for Bethnal Green.

Member of Parliament

189

přítěž ** n U /ˌlaɪəˈbɪləti/ someone or something that causes problems for someone The man’s a liability!

liability

190

středo-pravý adj /ˌsentə(r)ˈraɪt/ if a party is centre-right it is right-wing but not very strongly The president’s centre-right party has won 97% of the constituencies.

centre-right

191

okamžitě; pohotově * adv /ˈprɒmptli/ used for saying that someone does something immediately after doing another thing when this is surprising He offered to help, then promptly forgot.

promptly

192

prázdný; nepopsaný ** adj /blæŋk/ blank paper or a blank space is empty and contains no writing or other marks Write your name in the blank space at the top of the page.

blank

193

ponižující; zesměšňující adj /hjuːˈmɪliˌeɪtɪŋ/ making you feel very embarrassed and ashamed They've mad a humiliating mistake.

humiliating

194

záměrně adv /ɒn ˈpɜː(r)pəs/ deliberately Did you do that on purpose?

on purpose

195

zavázat se k něčemu v /kəˈmɪt tuː/ to promise to do something Encourage your client to commit to their goals.

commit to

196

oběžník, zpráva n C /ˈmeməʊ/ a short note that you send to someone who you work with She sent a memo to her staff telling them about the change.

memo

197

naprosto jisté phr /ˌʃɔː(r) əz ˈhel/ used for saying that something is very certain Sure as hell should be!

sure as hell

198

podplatit v /braɪb/ to give money or presents to someone so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal They were found guilty of trying to bribe officials.

bribe

199

vzplanutí, vypuknutí * n C /ˈaʊtˌbreɪk/ the sudden start of war, disease, violence etc An outbreak of food poisoning led to the deaths of five people.

outbreak

200

kandidát; uchazeč ** n C /hiːl/ one of the people competing for a job The ideal candidate will have excellent secretarial skills, a good phone manner and a smart appearance.

candidate

201

povýšený; přehlíživý adj /ˌkɒndɪˈsendɪŋ/ showing that you think you are more important or more intelligent than other people She spoke to me in a very condescending manner.

condescending

202

nacionalismus * n U /ˈnæʃ(ə)nəˌlɪz(ə)m/ the wish for political independence of a group of people with the same language, culture, history, etc. Some people in Scotland support Scottish nationalism.

nationalism

203

bojovnice za ženská práva n C /ˌsʌfrəˈdʒet/ in the UK and US, a woman who took part in public protests about giving women the right to vote in the early 1900s The importance of the suffragette movement should not be underestimated.

suffragette

204

propadat se hanbou v /skwɜː(r)m/ to look or feel embarrassed and uncomfortable He squirmed under the journalist's questioning.

squirm

205

parlamentní ** adj /ˌpɑː(r)ləˈment(ə)ri/ relating to a parliament or suitable for a parliament They took part in a parliamentary debate.

parliamentary

206

přístupný; přátelský adj /əˈprəʊtʃəb(ə)l/ someone who is approachable is friendly and easy to talk to The staff are all very friendly and approachable.

approachable

207

(vy/s)pustit; (vy/s)puštění ** v /lɔːntʃ/ an occasion when a company starts selling a new product or service to the public He attended the launch of the German Wine Week.

launch

208

udeřit pěstí; procviknout * v  /pʌntʃ/  to hit someone or something with your fist (=closed hand), usually as hard as you can Two men punched him, knocking him to the ground.

punch

209

jiskra, jiskřit, podnítit n C /spɑː(r)k/ the quality of being lively and original The performance was short on spark and creativity.

spark

210

ohled; hledisko ** v /rɪˈspekt/ a feeling of admiration that you have for someone because of their personal qualities, their achievements, or their status, and that you show by treating them in a polite and kind way She has worked hard to gain the respect of her colleagues.

respect

211

elitářsví n U  /ɪˈliːˌtɪz(ə)m/ the belief that a small group of people who have a lot of advantages should keep the most power and influence The older universities were accused of elitism.

elitism

212

inženýr; technik *** n C /ˌendʒɪˈnɪə(r)/ someone who designs or builds things such as roads, railroads, bridges, or machines He’s an excellent engineer.

engineer

213

formulovat adj /ɑː(r)ˈtɪkjʊlət/ able to express your thoughts, arguments, and ideas clearly and effectively She is a highly articulate woman.

articulate

214

drsný chlap adj /ˈmætʃəʊ/ behaving in a way traditionally considered typical of a man, for example by being strong and willing to fight, and by hiding your feelings Colin likes to kid everyone he’s the big macho tough guy.

macho

215

diskusní fórum n C /dɪˈskʌʃ(ə)n ˌfɔːrəm/ a website where people can express their ideas and opinions Read the postings on a discussion forum.

discussion forum

216

propustění z práce ** n C /dɪsˈmɪs(ə)l/ an act of making someone leave their job Those were not fair grounds for dismissal.

dismissal

217

určit, stanovit ** v /dɪˈtɜː(r)mɪn/ to control what something will be She claims that most human behaviour is socially determined.

determine

218

volební místnost n C /ˈpəʊlɪŋ ˌsteɪʃ(ə)n/ a building where people go to vote in an election The local school is being used as a polling station.

polling station

219

umírněný ** adj /ˈmɒd(ə)rət/ reasonable and avoiding extreme opinions or actions She was on the moderate wing of the party.

moderate

220

zprudka se otočit, změnit názor v /ˌwiːl əˈraʊnd/ to turn around quickly where you are standing She wheeled around and glared at me.

wheel around

221

přídělový systém n C /ˈkwəʊtə ˌsɪstəm/ a system in which someone has to do or have a certain amount of something The quota system, sometimes referred to as ‘positive discrimination’, is not popular with everyone.

quota system

222

útočník n C /əˈseɪlənt/  someone who violently attacks another person She was able to fight off her assailant.

assailant

223

vypořádat se (s problémem) * v /ˈtæk(ə)l/ to make an organized and determined attempt to deal with a problem, often a social problem such as crime or unemployment Successive governments have failed to tackle the question of homelessness.

tackle

224

unie; odbory *** n C /ˈjuːnjən/ an organization that represents the workers in a particular industry and tries to improve pay, conditions etc We encourage all employees to join a union.

union

225

odbýt; odmítnout v /brʌʃ ˈɒf/ to refuse to listen to someone, or to accept that something might be true or important The Foreign Secretary brushed off suggestions that he had considered resigning.

brush (sth) off

226

hluk; poprask * n U /fʌs/ a lot of unnecessary worry or excitement about something What is all the fuss about?

fuss