Unit 6 Fundamentals of Single Case Experimental Design II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6 Fundamentals of Single Case Experimental Design II Deck (64):
1

In a changing criterion design, each sub phase provides all of the following, except:

A) A baseline for the following phase
B) A means to gauge the effects of changing the IV value from the previous phase
C) All of these are provided by each sub phase of a changing criterion design
D) A means to gauge the effects of introducing or removing a completely different treatment

D) A means to gauge the effects of introducing or removing a completely different treatment

2

Which of the following is NOT a consideration in the visual analysis of a single subject design

A) Trend and level
B) Phase duration and latency to change
C) Range of data and mode shift
D) Variability and overlap of between phases

C) Range of data and mode shift

3

Which of the following options is NOT an advantage of a changing criterion design?

A) All subjects can receive treatment after the same length of baseline (assuming stable baseline for all)
B) Does not require multiple behaviors, subjects, or settings to demonstrate a functional relation
C) Highly useful for the rapid reduction of dangerous topographies
D) Treatment does not have to be withdrawn to demonstrate a functional relation

C) Highly useful for the rapid reduction of dangerous topographies

4

A changing criterion design would NOT be appropriate when:

A) It is meaningful to demonstrate experimental control during fading and shaping
B) A changing criterion design would not be appropriate in any of these conditions
C) It is meaningful to measure behavior change in stepwise increments/decrements
D) The target behavior is highly variable

D) The target behavior is highly variable

5

Which of the following manipulations of the changing criterion design tends to strengthen the internal validity of the specific study?

X = Keep the length of the phases as similar as possible

Y = Use bi-directionality

Z = Use 3 or more criterion changes, but not too many

A) X only
B) X, Y, and Z
C) X and Y only
D) Y and Z only

D) Y and Z only

6

Which multi-element design variation has a baseline (i.e., no treatment) condition included only as one of the alternating conditions throughout the experiment:

A) Multi-element with baseline plus a final treatment phase
B) Multi-element with no BL
C) Multi-element with no alternating conditions
D) Multi-element with pre-treatment BL

B) Multi-element with no BL

7

All of the following are important considerations when using a multi-element design, except:

A) Counterbalancing environmental variations
B) All of these are important considerations
C) Order of the conditions
D) Discriminability between conditions

B) All of these are important considerations

8

All of the following could be effective ways to enhance discriminability when using an alternating treatment design, except:
A) Include supplemental stimuli
B) Reduce the number of conditions
C) Use a strict sequence of alternating phases
D) Provide instructions before sessions

C) Use a strict sequence of alternating phases

9

Which of the following schedules could be used to enhance discriminability when using a multi-element design?
A) Multiple schedules of reinforcement have distinct discriminative stimuli associated with distinct alternating schedules
B) No schedules are associated with distinct discriminative stimuli
C) Mixed schedules of reinforcement have distinct discriminative stimuli associated with distinct alternating schedules
D) All alternating schedules have distinct discriminative stimuli associated with distinct reinforcement conditions

A) Multiple schedules of reinforcement have distinct discriminative stimuli associated with distinct alternating schedules

10

When one intentionally varies non-essential environmental parameters within an experimental phase – e.g., time of day when the experiment is run, specific therapists, rooms, etc.— with the purpose of neutralizing potential confounds, this is known as:
A) Using strict alternation
B) Counterbalancing
C) Using randomized order of conditions
D) Enhancing discriminability

B) Counterbalancing

11

When structuring the sequence of conditions to be presented in a multi-element design, the experimenter should order those conditions based on…

X = Randomization

Y = Randomization with restrictions

Z = Strict alternation of conditions

A) X only
B) X or Y but not Z
C) Z only
D) Y or Z but not X

B) X or Y but not Z

Strict alternation can easily lead to a sequence effect, and even if it does not, a sequence effect cannot be ruled out if the same sequence of conditions is always presented. Randomization is pure, and can be used but can have a downside in that certain conditions may, by chance, not be tested very often, while other conditions may be repeatedly tested over and over. Randomization with restrictions is less pure, but insures that all conditions are tested equally, and that sequence effects are reduced, or at least exposed.

12

Which of the following is not an advantage of multi-element designs?

A) It can quickly compare treatments or environmental manipulations
B) A baseline phase is optional
C) It is useful for behavior with a long latency to change
D) Highly variable behavior can still be evaluated

C) It is useful for behavior with a long latency to change

13

Which of the following is a limitation of multi-element designs?
A) Requires behavioral stability before other conditions are introduced
B) May require multiple behaviors, participants, or settings
C) May require a long time to complete
D) May be prone to multiple treatment interference

D) May be prone to multiple treatment interference

14

A multi-element design would be appropriate when:
A) All of these would be appropriate when using a multi-element design
B) Trying to compare multiple interventions
C) There are time constraints for assessment
D) Behavior is highly variable

A) All of these would be appropriate when using a multi-element design

15

When the conclusions of an experimental design are tenuous, which option makes the most sense for the experimenter to consider?
A) Question the external validity of the intervention
B) Change the calibration of the horizontal and/or vertical axes to enhance apparent treatment effects
C) Combine elements from two or more research designs to enhance the overall internal validity
D) Repeat the exact same study to see if the conclusions would be replicated

C) Combine elements from two or more research designs to enhance the overall internal validity

16

This type of treatment evaluation process is used to assess maintenance of treatment effects in the absence of an increasing number of components in a treatment package:
A) Sequential withdrawal
B) Parametric analysis
C) Sequence analysis
D) Probes

A) Sequential withdrawal

17

Budget cutbacks require all behavior service plans to be streamlined to remove “less effective” treatment components. The funding source has determined that trimming down to minimal, but still effective programs will significantly reduce staff resource requirements (fewer program procedures require fewer staff minutes per day). Individual service plan outcomes must not change under this new plan. Which type of analysis is most likely to identify program procedures, which may be removed from the overall treatment package without compromising its effectiveness?

A) Structural analysis
B) A multiple baseline design
C) Parametric analysis
D) Component analysis

D) Component analysis

18

In preparation for her meeting with the Psychiatrist, Alicia reviews Tierra’s data comparing the effects of 2 mg of Haldol, 5 mg of Haldol, and 10 mg of Haldol on the rate of “agitated self-scratching” (defined in the program). Based on visual analysis, Alicia concludes that rate of “agitated self-scratching” was lowest at 2 mg of Haldol. Which type of analysis did Alicia do to evaluate the effects produced by the different dosages of the medication?
A) Sequential Withdrawal
B) Component Analysis
C) Probe Analysis
D) Parametric Analysis

D) Parametric Analysis

19

Which of the following statements are true about probes? Probes may be conducted

X = prior to the implementation of a full baseline
Y = during a treatment, to evaluate generalization and expedite a fade
Z = following the end of treatment to evaluate maintenance

A) X only
B) X, Y, and Z
C) Y and Z only, but not X
D) X and Y but not Z

B) X, Y, and Z

20

These are “events not related to the IV that may affect the dependent variable”.
A) Confounds
B) Explanatory fictions
C) Extraneous Variables
D) Sequence effects

C) Extraneous Variables

21

Which of the following statements are true about confounds?

X = in ABA, confounds are usually related to the experimental design itself

Y = the terms, “confounds” and “extraneous variables” mean exactly the same thing

Z = confounds are typically discovered in data which have already been collected

A) X, Y, and Z
B) Y and Z only
C) X and Y only
D) X and Z only

D) X and Z only

22

What is the most effective way to minimize the effect of multiple treatment interference as a confound?

A) Use an extended alone condition
B) Enhance discriminability
C) Counterbalance the design
D) End with a single treatment in isolation

D) End with a single treatment in isolation

23

When you find no functional relationship, but there actually is a functional relationship between the IV and the DV, this is considered a X , otherwise known as a Y .

A) X = false negative Y = type 1 error
B) X = false positive Y = type 1 error
C) X = false negative Y = type 2 error
D) X = false positive Y = type 2 error

C) X = false negative Y = type 2 error

24

To reduce threats to procedural integrity, one should do any or all of the following, except:

A) Provide training and practice for implementers on a regular basis
B) Simplify the dependent variable by shortening the target behavior definition
C) Provide contingencies for program implementers relating to program fidelity
D) Simplify the independent variable by reducing program complexity

B) Simplify the dependent variable by shortening the target behavior definition

25

Which of the following are types of social validity? Social validity of…

X = Goals and targets

Y = Procedures

Z = Results

A) X, Y, and Z
B) Y and Z only
C) X and Z only
D) X and Y only

A) X, Y, and Z

26

In a changing criterion design, each sub phase provides:
A) A baseline for the following phase
B) A means to gauge the effects of changing the IV value from the previous phase
C) Both a baseline for the following phase and a means to gauge the effects of changing the IV value from the previous phase
D) A means to gauge the effects of introducing or removing a different treatment

C) Both a baseline for the following phase and a means to gauge the effects of changing the IV value from the previous phase

27

Experimental control is demonstrated in a changing criterion design when the performance (behavior)…

A) reliably changes between phases when a specific treatment is repeatedly introduced or removed
B) reliably changes, depending on different independent variables, which are rapidly manipulated across successive sessions
C) closely matches sequential changes in behavioral targets during sub-phases
D) changes whenever treatment is introduced, at different points in time, across different baselines

C) closely matches sequential changes in behavioral targets during sub-phases

28

What is one advantage of the changing criterion design?
A) Highly variable behavior does not need to match changes in criterion in order for a functional relation to be demonstrated
B) Effective treatment need not be fully withdrawn to demonstrate a functional relation
C) It can easily compare multiple behaviors, subjects, or settings on a single chart
D) Very efficient: almost no pre-planning is required, and data are collected quickly

B) Effective treatment need not be fully withdrawn to demonstrate a functional relation

29

A changing criterion design is most appropriate when:
A) The target response is highly variable across sub-phases
B) Appropriate levels of the behavior must change, based on a changing natural environment
C) The target behavior is completely absent from the person’s repertoire
D) The goal is to gradually increase or decrease some dimension of a target response

D) The goal is to gradually increase or decrease some dimension of a target response

30

When using a changing criterion design, bi-directional change refers to the strategy of:
A) Reversing a treatment contingency up and down across phases
B) Selecting behavior that is reversible so it can show an increase or decrease under different conditions
C) Changing the next criterion to the value of a later planned sub-phase value to demonstrate experimental control
D) Changing the next criterion to a value seen in a prior sub-phase – to bolster a demonstration of experimental control

D) Changing the next criterion to a value seen in a prior sub-phase – to bolster a demonstration of experimental control

31

What experimental design is characterized by repeated measurement of behavior while different assessment or treatment conditions are alternated rapidly?
A) Multi-element
B) Multiple-baseline
C) Reversal
D) Changing criterion design

A) Multi-element

32

In this design variation, a no-treatment phase is followed by several treatments, rapidly alternated; this is followed by the introduction of an extended phase of a single one of those treatments. It is often used to evaluate the possibility of multiple treatment interference.
A) Alternating treatment with a post-treatment BL phase
B) Alternating treatment with no BL
C) Multiple probe with pre-treatment BL
D) Multi-element with baseline plus a final treatment phase

D) Multi-element with baseline plus a final treatment phase

33

Which of the following is not an important consideration when using a multi-element design?

A) Discriminability
B) Order of conditions
C) Counterbalancing
D) Behavioral variability

D) Behavioral variability

34

What is an effective way to enhance discrimination across conditions when using a multi-element design?
A) All of these are effective ways to increase discriminability
B) Include supplemental stimuli
C) Reduce the number of distinct conditions being compared
D) Provide instructions before sessions

A) All of these are effective ways to increase discriminability

35

Which experimental design technique can vary non-essential condition components (e.g., times of day, therapists, rooms, etc.) to minimize potential confounding variables?
A) Counterbalance
B) Enhance discriminability
C) Use strict alternation
D) Use randomized order of conditions

A) Counterbalance

36

Which of the following sequence of conditions would not control for any potential sequence effects?

A) Randomization
B) All of these sequence arrangements would control for sequence effects
C) Strict alternation
D) Randomization with restrictions

C) Strict alternation

37

Advantages of using multi-element designs include all of the following, except:

A) Controls for multiple treatment interference
B) Useful for highly variable behavior
C) May require a fewer number of sessions and less time
D) Useful to compare treatments quickly

A) Controls for multiple treatment interference

38

A multi-element design is least likely to be effective at rapidly establishing functional relationships between an IV and a DV when…
A) the individual’s behavior is highly variable
B) time constraints demand rapid assessment results
C) trying to compare multiple interventions
D) the individual has major perceptual problems

D) the individual has major perceptual problems

When individuals have problems discriminating environmental conditions (e.g., the person is deaf, or blind, or both) this design can be ineffective: when condition changes cannot be rapidly discriminated, discriminative control of those differing conditions may never occur, at least in the short duration test phases that generally characterize this design. In fact, one of the ways to IMPROVE this design is to “enhance discriminability”—so that changing conditions begin to exert discriminative control quickly, and the data reflect those rapid changes, fast. Multi-element designs do not require the stability of behavior to demonstrate functional relations, as long as consistent and clear differences can be perceived–by the subject—across conditions. It is the most appropriate design for highly variable behavior, since stability is not required between condition changes. This also means fewer sessions may be required since data stability is not necessary for phase change, so this design is most appropriate when time constraints exist. It is obviously the most appropriate for comparing different interventions –it is in the name of the design itself: alternating treatment design (aka multi-element design).

39

Experimental design combinations are used for the following reason: Design combinations…
A) have a higher probability of being published in journals
B) offer more “exquisite” graphical displays
C) enhances the certainty of experimental control when the conclusions of the “planned” designs are tenuous
D) typically require less time and resources

C) enhances the certainty of experimental control when the conclusions of the “planned” designs are tenuous

40

Which of the following is not a common experimental design combination?

A) Combined reversal and multiple-baseline
B) Combined multiple-baseline and multi-element
C) Combined single-case and group design
D) Combined reversal and multi-element

C) Combined single-case and group design

41

A component analysis is carried out by:

A) systematically withdrawing treatment components to see if behavior change is maintained
B) assessing behavior on occasions when the contingencies arranged in the analysis are not in effect
C) summarizing A-B-C data to identify sequences of events that are correlated with a target behavior
D) systematically examining the effects of a range of values of the independent variable

A) systematically withdrawing treatment components to see if behavior change is maintained

42

Which of the following is NOT a consideration in the visual analysis of a single subject design

A) Variability and overlap of between phases
B) Trend and level
C) All of these are considerations in visual analysis
D) Phase duration and latency to change

C) All of these are considerations in visual analysis

43

Rob is on an intervention plan that includes access to his favorite music CD by Genesis contingent upon taking out the trash. His behavior analyst is trying to determine if 1 minute, 3-minutes, or 5-minutes of access will be effective in reliably maintaining Rob’s taking out trash behavior. Which type of analysis should Rob’s behavior analyst do to determine which amount of access to the music CD is most effective as a reinforcer?
A) Parametric analysis
B) Component analysis
C) Sequential withdrawal
D) Probe analysis

A) Parametric analysis

44

Chris’ mom expressed concerned over son’s weight gain. She is worried about the “heavy use” of edible reinforcement in his program. She asked the behavior analyst to stop using edibles to reinforce Chris’ performance of self-care skills, which are currently maintained by contingent praise, plus choice-of-edible for completing each skill. Current data indicate a high rate of self-care task completion. The behavior analyst wants to evaluate if praise alone will maintain high rates of self-care skills completed on a daily basis. What should the behavior analyst do next?
A) Use a multi-element design with final treatment phase
B) Conduct a parametric analysis
C) Conduct a structural analysis
D) Conduct a component analysis

D) Conduct a component analysis

45

“Assessment of behavior on occasions when the contingencies arranged in the analysis are not in effect” is a good definition of

A) Sequential withdrawal
B) Parametric analysis
C) A component analysis
D) Probes

D) Probes

46

The most common types of confound in ABA design are:
A) Counterbalancing, yoking, enhancing discriminability
B) Sequence effects, carryover effects, multiple treatment interference
C) Final treatment phase, staggered introduction of the IV, multiple treatment interference
D) Extraneous variables, intrinsic variables, yoking

B) Sequence effects, carryover effects, multiple treatment interference

47

When behavior in one condition is affected by the person’s experience in the prior condition, this is a potential confound known as
A) Extraneous variable
B) Multiple treatment interference
C) History
D) A sequence effect

D) A sequence effect

48

When a pattern of behavior is established in one session and it extends into the next session, this X is known as Y .

A)
X = extraneous variable Y = diffusion of treatment


B)
X = extraneous variable Y = sequence effect


C)
X = confound Y = carryover effect


D)
X = confound Y = multiple treatment effect

C)
X = confound Y = carryover effect

49

When you find a functional relationship, even though there actually is NO functional relationship between the IV and the DV, this is considered a X , otherwise known as a Y .

A)
X = false negative Y = type 2 error


B)
X = false negative Y = type 1 error


C)
X = false positive Y = type 2 error


D) X = false positive Y = type 1 error

D) X = false positive Y = type 1 error

50

During Allison’s treatment evaluation, her program is randomly alternated with a baseline condition and a non-contingent reinforcement condition. Her program consists of a time-out procedure for a problem behavior along with a reinforcement procedure for a functionally equivalent alternative response. What type of confound is potentially hidden in the way this evaluation is arranged?
A) Potential of extraneous variables influencing the DV
B) Sequence effects
C) Multiple-treatment interference
D) Carryover effects

C) Multiple-treatment interference

51

Determining the social validity of a behavior intervention plan requires that the behavior analyst look at all of these aspects of the program, except

A) The appropriateness of the procedures—are they practical, produce minimal side effects, and acceptable to society at large
B) The social significance of the goals – will this increase or decrease in behavior represent an improvement in the person’s life
C) The degree to which the program procedures can apply to other social environments and other persons in society– do these procedures generalize
D) The social importance of the results to the individual—is the person better off now that their behavior has changed

C) The degree to which the program procedures can apply to other social environments and other persons in society– do these procedures generalize

52

“The extent to which the independent variables are implemented as dictated by the research plan” is otherwise defined as:
A) All of these are correct
B) Inter observer agreement
C) Procedural drift
D) Procedural integrity

D) Procedural integrity

53

The treatment phase is divided into subphases.
Each subphase involves a different behavioral criterion (i.e., a different value of the IV).
Criterion in each subphase more closely resembles the terminal behavioral goal.

Changing Criterion Design

54

Implement bi-directional changes to bolster demonstration of experimental control
Changing criteria to a previous subphase value and observing that behavior reverts to that criterion

Bi-Directional Change

55

Systematically withdrawing treatment components to see if behavior change is maintained.

Component Analyses/ Sequential Withdrawal

56

The systematic examination of the effects of a range of values of the IV

Parametric Analysis

57

Evaluate whether treatment effects are evident before treatment occurs

Probes

58

Events not related to the IV that may affect the dependent variable

Extraneous Variables

59

An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the DV

Confound

60

The effects on a person’s behavior in one condition can be influenced by the subject’s experience in a prior condition

Sequence Effects

61

Concluding that the independent variable has produced a change in the dependent variable when in fact the relation does not exist.

Type I Error

62

Concluding that the independent variable has not produced a change in the dependent variable when in fact it has.

Type II Error

63

The independent variables are implemented as dictated by the research or treatment plan.

Procedural Integrity

64

Examination of the acceptability or viability of a programmed intervention

Social Validity