Unit 7 Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psyche > Unit 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 7 Deck (71):
1

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system

2

storage

the retention of encoded information over time

3

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

4

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information In the memory system

5

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

6

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system, includes knowledge, skills, and experience

7

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

8

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts wit step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving

9

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information. such as space, time, frequency, and of well-learned information, such as meanings

10

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

11

rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

12

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice

13

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

14

visual encoding

the encoding of picture images

15

acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words

16

semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.

17

imagery

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combed with semantic meanings

18

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

19

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

20

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

21

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

22

long-term potentiation

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

23

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

24

amnesia

the loss of memory

25

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection (also called non-declarative or procedural memory)

26

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (also called declarative memory)

27

hippocampus

a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

28

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

29

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

30

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

31

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

32

deja vu

the eerie sense that one has experienced something before

33

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood

34

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

35

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

36

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thought, feelings, and memories

37

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

38

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Source of false memories

39

cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

40

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas. or people

41

prototype,

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin

42

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone-use of heuristics

43

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier, but also more error-prone than algorithms

44

insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

45

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

46

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports out preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

47

fixation

the inability to a see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

48

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

49

functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

50

representative heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

51

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps of their vividness), we presume such events are common.

52

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct - to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

53

belief perseverance

clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

54

intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious feeling

55

framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

56

language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

57

phoneme

in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

58

morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word, or part of a word

59

grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

60

semantics

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

61

syntax

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

62

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

63

one-word stage

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

64

two-word stage

beginning about age 1, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

65

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegraph

66

linguistic determinism

Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think

67

Noam Chomsky

Created the Chomsky hierarchy

68

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Created the concept of a “learning curve”. also, spacing effect.

69

Wolfgang Kohler

contributed to Gestalt psychology

70

Elizabeth Loftus

False memory turtle-bronx lady

71

George A. Miller

Contributor to psycolinguistics and cognitive science in general