Unit 7 Flashcards Preview

Straightforward Upper-intermediate > Unit 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 7 Deck (282):
1

dye

obarvit; barva; barvivo n C / v /daɪ/ a substance used for changing the colour of something such as clothing or your hair I've bought a bottle of hair dye.

2

insulation

izolace n U /ˌɪnsjʊˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ material used for preventing heat, cold, noise, or electricity from passing through something Make sure that you have adequate loft insulation.

3

invariably

beze změny * adv /ɪnˈveəriəbli/ always, or almost always Victoria was invariably late.

4

furnishings

zařízení, vybavení n pl /ˈfɜː(r)nɪʃɪŋz/ such things as furniture, carpets, and curtains The wallpaper should match the furnishings.

5

blanket

přikrývka; deka ** n C /ˈblæŋkɪt/ a thick cover made of wool or another material that you use to keep warm in bed Soft furnishings, like blankets and cushions, will be particularly useful for the elderly.

6

take (sth) to pieces

rozebrat v /ˌteɪk tə ˈpiːsəz/ to separate something into its individual parts It looks like you’re taking the whole house to pieces!

7

shortage of

nedostatek phr /ˈʃɔː(r)tɪdʒ əv/ a lack of something that you need or want Some countries are experiencing a shortage of clean water.

8

barrier

překážka, bariéra ** n C /ˈbæriə(r)/ anything that prevents progress or makes it difficult for someone to achieve something Disability need not be a barrier to a successful career.

9

pesticide

pesticid n C /ˈpestɪsaɪd/ a chemical used for killing insects, especially those that damage crops The trees have been sprayed with pesticides.

10

powder

prášek ** n U /ˈpaʊdə(r)/ a soft dry substance that looks like dust or sand The detergent is sold in both liquid and powder forms.

11

bring up

vychovat; začít hovořit o v /ˌbrɪŋ ˈʌp/ to take care of a child until he or she becomes an adult Millions of Americans look to her to tell them how to bring up their children.

12

drive for

nadšení, elán; verva phr /ˈdraɪv fɔː(r)/ a big effort to achieve something, especially by a company or government The turn of the century was marked by the drive for super sizes.

13

fertiliser

hnojivo n C /ˈfɜː(r)təˌlaɪzə(r)/ a natural or chemical substance added to soil in order to help plants grow The farm uses a lot of sacks of fertiliser.

14

gas-guzzling

(auto) které strašně žere adj /ˈɡæs ˌɡʌz(ə)lɪŋ/ a gas-guzzling vehicle uses a lot of fuel More and more of these gas-guzzling four-wheelers are finding themselves out on the streets with a For Sale sign in their windows.

15

compatible

hodící se k sobě * adj /kəmˈpætəb(ə)l/ if one piece of computer equipment or software is compatible with another, they can be used together It is compatible with all the major phone manufacturers.

16

backpack

ruksak; batoh n C /ˈbækˌpæk/ a rucksack He put his sleeping bag at the bottom of his backpack.

17

make or break

buď a nebo (totální úspěch nebo nezdar) phr /ˌmeɪk ɔː(r) ˈbreɪk/ bringing either total success or total failure, and therefore very important It's a make-or-break decision for the manager.

18

interest in

zájem o… phr /ˈɪntrəst ˌɪn/ a feeling of wanting to know about or take part in something The interest in healthier food will also mean that we will be eating more and more organic food.

19

climate change

změna podnebí n U /ˈklaɪmət ˌtʃeɪndʒ/ the changes that are thought to be affecting the world’s weather so that it is becoming warmer The conference will address the problems of climate change.

20

organic food

bio jídlo n U /ɔː(r)ˌɡænɪk ˈfuːd/ organic food or drink is produced using only a small number of artificial chemicals The interest in healthier food will also mean that we will be eating more and more organic food.

21

frustrated

znechucený; otrávený * adj /frʌˈstreɪtɪd/ feeling annoyed and impatient because you are prevented from achieving something Frustrated passengers have started to use other forms of transport.

22

supplement

přídavek; doplněk; dodatek ** n C /ˈsʌplɪment/ a pill or special food that you take or eat when your food does not contain everything that you need We’ll be eating seaweed supplements along with most of our meals.

23

breeze

vánek ** n C /briːz/ a light wind It was a warm day but there was a gentle breeze.

24

block

zablokovat ** v /blɒk/ to stop someone from going forward or making progress Explore the problems and barriers blocking the client's way.

25

query

dotaz; otázka * n C /ˈkwɪəri/ a question that you ask because you want information or because you are not certain about something One of our staff will be available to answer your queries.

26

recycle

recyklovat * v /riːˈsaɪk(ə)l/ to change waste materials such as newspapers and bottles so that they can be used again Japan recycles 40% of its waste.

27

helmet

helma; ochranná přilba * n C /ˈhelmɪt/ a hard hat that you wear to protect your head He's wearing a motorcycle helmet.

28

throw a party

pořádat večírek phr /ˌθrəʊ ə ˈpɑː(r)ti/ to organize a party, especially in your own home Let’s throw a dinner party for him.

29

make a difference

mít význam, vliv phr /ˌmeɪk ə ˈdɪfrəns/ to have an important effect on something, especially a good effect This scheme will certainly make a difference to the way I do my job.

30

kilt

sukně skotského kroje n C /kɪlt/ a type of traditional Scottish clothing, similar to a skirt, worn by men. Kilts are made of woollen cloth in a pattern called tartan. He wore a kilt in MacIntosh tartan.

31

bleed

krvácet * v  /bliːd/ to have blood flowing from your body, for example from a cut You're bleeding!

32

fittings

kování; armatura * n pl /ˈfɪtɪŋz/ a small part that you connect to something We really need new bathroom fittings.

33

tarnish

pošpinit v /ˈtɑː(r)nɪʃ/ if something tarnishes your reputation or image, it makes people have a worse opinion of you than they did before The revelations tarnished her image.

34

get in shape

dostat se do formy phr /ˌɡet ɪn ˈʃeɪp/ to improve your physical condition Ever tried to get in shape?

35

guided tour

prohlídka s výkladem n C /ˌɡaɪdɪd ˈtʊə(r)/ a short journey around a building or place with a person who tells you about what you are seeing or with a pair of headphones on which you can listen to a recorded description of what you are seeing They gave us a guided tour of the city.

36

end product

výsledný produkt n C /ˌend ˈprɒdʌkt/ the thing that is produced at the end of a process What are the end products of fermentation?

37

retardant

retardér, zpomalovač n C /rɪˈtɑː(r)d(ə)nt/ a fire retardant is a mixture of chemicals which makes something difficult to burn The final fabric is bleached, dyed and sprayed with a fire retardant.

38

bare bones

podstata phr /beə(r) bəʊnz/ the most basic features or details Anderson outlined the bare bones of his strategy.

39

lifestyle

životní styl ** n U /ˈlaɪfˌstaɪl/ the type of life that you have, for example the type of job or house you have or the type of activity you like doing I try to live a healthy, outdoor lifestyle.

40

strip

svléknout; odstrojit ** v /strɪp/ if you strip something down, you take something such as a machine apart First of all we're stripping the house down to its bare bones.

41

PVC

PVC n U /ˌpiː viː ˈsiː/ polyvinyl chloride: a type of plastic used for making clothes, shoes, water pipes etc She's wearing a black PVC raincoat.

42

refine

rafinovat; čistit v /rɪˈfaɪn/ to remove things from a natural substance in order to make it pure The powder is refined from pure oil.

43

life coach

člověk pomáhající s životními rozhodnutími n C /ˈlaɪf ˌkəʊtʃ/ someone who provides advice and support to people who want to improve their lives, helping them to make decisions, solve problems, and achieve their goals She approached a life coach.

44

emission

emise ** n C /ɪˈmɪʃ(ə)n/ the act of sending gas, light, or heat into the air Many countries are trying to limit the emission of greenhouse gases.

45

asthma

astma * n U /ˈæsmə/ a medical condition that makes it difficult to breathe She had an attack of asthma.

46

exhaust fume

výfukové plyny n C /ɪɡˈzɔːst ˌfjuːm/ gases or steam produced by an engine as it works Prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust fumes may cause chronic asthma.

47

charger

nabíječka n C /ˈtʃɑː(r)dʒə(r)/ a piece of equipment used for providing a battery with electricity Have you seen my phone charger?

48

flush

spláchnout; červenat se * v /flʌʃ/ to make water pass through a toilet If any medicine is left over, flush it down the toilet.

49

willpower

síla vůle n U /ˈwɪlˌpaʊə(r)/ the ability to control your thoughts and behaviour in order to achieve something Dieting is just a matter of willpower.

50

make time for (sth)

udělat si čas na něco phr /ˌmeɪk ˈtaɪm fə(r)/ to find time to do something or be with someone in spite of being busy He’s finding it difficult to make time for his children.

51

thermos bag

termo taška n C /ˈθɜː(r)məs ˌbæɡ/ a container that keeps liquids hot or cold Thanks to new ultra-light materials, thermos bags and bottles will be lighter, smaller and easier to carry.

52

increase in

nárůst v… phr /ɪnˈkriːs ˌɪn/ to become larger in amount or number The club has been increasing in popularity.

53

cut down on

uříznout; snížit v /kʌt daʊn ɒn/ to reduce an amount of something These improvements will cut down on traffic noise.

54

seaweed

chaluha; mořská řasa n C /ˈsiːˌwiːd/ a green or brown plant that grows in the sea At low tide the rocks are covered in seaweed.

55

carrier bag

nákupní taška n C /ˈkæriə(r) ˌbæɡ/ a cheap bag that a shop gives you for carrying your goods home I've got a carrier bag full of shopping.

56

mosaic

mozaika n C / U /məʊˈzeɪɪk/  a pattern or picture made of many small colored pieces of stone, glass, etc I’m going to build a mosaic wall in the kitchen!

57

account for

tvořit; podílet se na v /əˈkaʊnt fɔː(r)/ to form, use, or produce a particular amount or part of a group of people or things Electronic goods account for over 30% of our exports.

58

plummet

padat, sletět v /ˈplʌmɪt/ if something such as an amount, rate, or value plummets, it suddenly becomes much lower Share prices plummeted today to a three-month low.

59

decorate

(vy)zdobit ** v /ˈdekəreɪt/ to put paint or paper on the walls of a room We decorated the kitchen last weekend.

60

fossil fuel

fosilní palivo n C /ˈfɒs(ə)l ˌfjuːəl/ a fuel such as coal or oil, made from decayed material from animals or plants that lived many thousands of years ago We are still totally reliant on fossil fuels.

61

glove

rukavice ** n C /ɡlʌv/ a piece of clothing that covers your fingers and hands We’ll be able to read the football results on the palm of our gloves.

62

fancy

představit si; mít chuť ** v /ˈfænsi/  to want to have or do something Do you fancy going to the cinema?

63

diesel

nafta * n U /ˈdiːz(ə)l/  heavy oil used as fuel instead of petrol in some engines Fill the tank with diesel.

64

polluter

znečišťovatel n C /pəˈluːtə(r)/ a person or company responsible for causing pollution The polluter will pay compensation to the farmers whose land they have polluted.

65

plumbing

potrubní rozvody n U /ˈplʌmɪŋ/ the system of pipes, water tanks, and other equipment used for supplying and storing water in a building I spent all day trying to fix a leak in the plumbing.

66

pinpoint

stanovit, vypíchnout, zdůraznit v /ˈpɪnˌpɔɪnt/ to discover or explain exactly what something is We’ve been unable to pinpoint the source of the problem.

67

extract

výtažek; koncentrát ** v  /ɪkˈstrækt/ to remove a substance from another substance It's a method of extracting sulphur from copper ore.

68

dust

prach ** n U /dʌst/ very small pieces of dirt that cover surfaces inside buildings like a powder The dictionaries were covered in dust.

69

approve

schválit; schvalovat *** v /əˈpruːv/ to have a positive feeling towards someone or something that you consider to be good or suitable He seemed to approve of my choice.

70

make the most of (sth)

naplno něco využít phr /ˌmeɪk ðə ˈməʊst əv/ to use a good situation to get the best possible result It’s a beautiful day today. Let’s make the most of it.

71

tyre

pneumatika ** n C /ˈtaɪə(r)/ a thick rubber cover that fits round the wheel of a bicycle, car, or other vehicle I need to change the tyres on my car.

72

ink

inkoust * n C /ɪŋk/ a black or coloured liquid used for writing, drawing, or printing The price of ink cartridges is outrageous.

73

spray

postřikovat;sprej * v  /spreɪ/ to cover crops or a large area of land with a chemical spray in order to kill insects or prevent diseases In developing countries, more than 50% of all pesticides used in agriculture are sprayed onto cotton fields.

74

layer

vrstva *** n C /ˈleɪə(r)/ a piece of clothing that you wear underneath or over another piece of clothing Sweatshirts will change colour to show it's time to put on another layer.

75

beachwear

plážový oděv n U /ˈbiːtʃˌweə(r)/ light summer clothes that you wear on the beach We need to find a shop that sells beachwear and swimwear.

76

extension

telefonní linka; přístavba *** n C /ɪkˈstenʃ(ə)n/ an extra room or rooms added to a building We are building an extension on the back of our house.

77

advances in

pokrok v phr /ədˈvɑːnsəz ɪn/ progress or an instance of progress in science, technology, human knowledge etc In recent years there have been major advances in computer technology.

78

hire

najmout si ** v /ˈhaɪə(r)/ if you hire something, such as a car, room, or piece of equipment, you pay the owner so that you can use it, especially for a short time. The usual American word is rent You can hire a car at the airport.

79

floorboard

podlahové prkno n C /ˈflɔː(r)ˌbɔː(r)d/  a long wooden board that is part of a wooden floor I'm going to sand the floorboards at the weekend.

80

greywater tank

nádrž na odpadní vodu z domácností n C /ˈɡreɪwɔːtə(r) ˌtæŋk/ a large metal container for waste water which has been used for domestic activities We don’t know when the greywater tank is coming.

81

fabric

tkanina; látka ** n C /ˈfæbrɪk/ cloth, especially when it is used for making things such as clothes or curtains She was wearing a dress made of a floral fabric.

82

shave

holit (se) * v /ʃeɪv/ to make a part of your body smooth by cutting off the hair using a razor or shaver I cut myself while I was shaving.

83

carbon

uhlík ** n U /ˈkɑː(r)bən/ a chemical element that is found in all living things, and can also exist as diamonds or coal The black carbon powder is refined from pure oil.

84

solar energy

solární energie n C /ˈsəʊlə(r) ˌenə(r)dʒi/ energy that uses the power of the Sun’s light and heat to produce electricity The company is a pioneer in solar energy and solar heating installations.

85

mutual

vzájemný ** adj /ˈmjuːtʃuəl/ belonging to or true of two or more people They were introduced by a mutual friend.

86

global warming

globální oteplování * n U /ˌɡləʊb(ə)l ˈwɔː(r)mɪŋ/ the slow increase in the temperature of the Earth caused partly by the greenhouse effect increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere The country is trying to help prevent man-made global warming.

87

taste for

záliba v… phr /ˈteɪst fɔː(r)/ if you have a taste for something, you like it Children will develop a taste for more and more complicated computer games.

88

appliance

přístroj, zařízení * n C /əˈplaɪəns/ a machine or piece of equipment that you have in your home, for example a washing machine or refrigerator We stock a wide range of kitchen appliances.

89

step-by-step

krok za krokem adj /ˌstep baɪ ˈstep/ a step-by-step plan or set of instructions is easy to follow and explains each stage of a process in a clear and simple way Read our step-by-step guide to home improvement.

90

fold

složit; přehnout ** v /fəʊld/  if something folds, or if you can fold it, you can bend part of it so that it becomes smaller and easier to carry or store The bed folds away conveniently for storage.

91

germ

bakterie n C /dʒɜː(r)m/ a form of bacteria that spreads disease among people or animals It’s a germ that causes sore throats.

92

palm

dlaň; palma ** n C /pɑːm/ the inside part of your hand, between your fingers and your wrist We’ll be able to read the football results on the palm of our gloves.

93

wiring

elektrické vedení; elektroinstalace n U /ˈwaɪərɪŋ/ the electric wires in a building, vehicle, or machine Faulty wiring may have caused the fire.

94

solar panel

sluneční kolektor *** n C  /ˈsoʊlər ˌpæn(ə)l/ a piece of equipment that uses energy from the Sun to create power for a building These polycarbonate plastic bricks contain solar panels and a light source.

95

substance

látka; substance *** n C /ˈsʌbstəns/ a particular type of liquid, solid, or gas The wood is coated with a special substance that protects it from the sun.

96

tasty

chutný * adj /ˈteɪsti/ tasty food has a nice flavour We will be able to keep food fresh and tasty out of the fridge for much longer.

97

consumption of

spotřeba čeho phr /kənˈsʌmpʃ(ə)n ˌəv/ the amount that someone eats, drinks, or smokes Watch out for a huge increase in the consumption of seafoods.

98

demand for

zájem o, poptávka phr /dɪˈmɑːnd fɔː(r)/ the amount of a product or service that people want, or the fact that they want it Demand for organic food is increasing.

99

self-cleaning

samočistící adj /ˌselfˈkliːnɪŋ/ if something is self-cleaning it can remove dirt from itself It's possible to buy self-cleaning ovens.

100

packaging

balení, obal * n U /ˈpækɪdʒɪŋ/ the activity of putting products into containers so that they can be sold in shops There have been big advances in packaging technology.

101

tunnel

tunel; chodba ** n C /ˈtʌn(ə)l/ an underground passage through which vehicles travel They're building a tunnel under the river.

102

tile

kachlička; obkladačka; dlaždice n C /taɪl/ a flat square piece of baked clay or another substance used for covering a wall or a floor The floor was made from ceramic tiles.

103

heat-sensitive

citlivý na teplo adj /ˈhiːtˌsensətɪv/ reacting quickly or strongly to being hot or cold Heat-sensitive fabrics will also be coming into their own with a hundred and one different uses.

104

make it easier

ulehčit si to phr /ˌmeɪk ɪt ˈiːzɪə(r)/ to make something less difficult to do, or need less work How do they make it easier to decide what to do?

105

neighbouring

sousední * adj /ˈneɪbərɪŋ/ near each other A lot of people from neighbouring towns came to the festival.

106

dump

zahodit; zbavit se ** v /dʌmp/ to get rid of someone or something that you no longer want or need Over 150,000 tonnes of waste are dumped annually along the coastline.

107

tank

nádoba; nádrž *** n C /tæŋk/ a large metal container for liquid or gas The SUV has a large fuel tank.

108

icon

ikona * n C /ˈaɪkɒn/ someone who is very famous and who people think represents a particular idea He was one of the best-known pop icons of the 1980s.

109

drill

vrtačka; vrták * n C /drɪl/ a tool used for making a hole in something. A drill that uses electricity is called an electric drill and a drill that works when you turn a handle is called a hand drill There’s something wrong with that drill.

110

damp

mokrý ** adj /dæmp/ something that is damp is slightly wet, often in an unpleasant way or when it should be dry The wood won’t burn if it’s damp.

111

all the rage

velmi populární phr /ˌɔːl ðə ˈreɪdʒ/ very popular Internet shopping is now all the rage.

112

smash up

rozbít v /ˌsmæʃ ˈʌp/ to destroy something completely by violently breaking it into many pieces She got angry and started smashing things up.

113

erect

vybudovat; postavit * v /ɪˈrekt/ to build something such as a statue or bridge A memorial to her was erected after her death.

114

SUV

automobil pro volný čas (sport-utility vehicle) n C /ˌes juː ˈviː/ a sports utility vehicle: a vehicle which has a system that provides power to all four wheels The much-loved American SUV (sports utility vehicle) is quickly losing its appeal.

115

watch out for

číhat na; dávat si pozor na v /wɒtʃ ˈaʊt fɔː(r)/ to pay attention so that you will see something when it arrives or happens Watch out for cyclists.

116

produce

vyrobit; (vy)produkovat * n U /ˈprɒdjuːs/ fruit, vegetables, and other things that farmers grow The shop sells only organic produce.

117

renovation

obnova; modernizace n C/U /ˌrenəˈveɪʃ(ə)n/ the process of making something old to look new again by repairing and improving it, especially a building The government has announced new laws to encourage eco renovations.

118

chronic

chronický * adj /ˈkrɒnɪk/ a chronic illness or chronic pain is serious and lasts for a long time. A serious illness or pain that lasts only for a short time is described as acute She suffers from chronic back pain.

119

bleach

odbarvit v /bliːtʃ/ to remove the colour from something with a chemical or through the action of sunlight Raw cloth is bleached and then dyed.

120

devastating

pustošivý; otřesný * adj /ˈdevəˌsteɪtɪŋ/ causing a lot of harm or damage Many people have had to leave their homes due to a devastating flood.

121

sarong

sarong (malajský oděv z jednoho kusu látky) n C /səˈrɒŋ/ a long wide piece of cloth that is tied around the waist to make a skirt or at the shoulder to make a dress. It is worn by men and women in Malaysia and some other countries. They showed me how to tie a sarong.

122

filter

filtr ** n C /ˈfɪltə(r)/ an object or piece of equipment that allows you to remove solid parts that are not wanted from a liquid or gas We've started using a water filter.

123

razor

holicí strojek; žiletka * n C /ˈreɪzə(r)/ a small tool or piece of electrical equipment used for shaving (=removing hair from your skin) I normally use an electric razor.

124

rubble

sutiny; trosky n U /ˈrʌb(ə)l/ broken pieces of stone and brick from buildings, walls etc that have been destroyed A bomb reduced the houses to rubble.

125

sanding machine

přístroj na broušení n C /ˈsændɪŋ məˌʃiːn/ a piece of equipment that makes something such as wood very smooth by rubbing it with sandpaper Winston’s hired one of those sanding machines.

126

integrate

integrovat, začlenit ** v /ˈɪntɪˌɡreɪt/ to connect or combine two or more things so that together they form an effective unit or system A whole range of clothes will be developed that can integrate electronics with fabrics.

127

genetically modified food

geneticky modifikované potraviny n U /dʒəˌnetɪkli ˌmɒdɪfaɪd ˈfuːd/ food from a plant or animal that has had its genetic structure changed in order to make it more suited to a particular purpose Advances in genetically-modified food will revolutionize our diet.

128

four wheeler

čtyřkolka n C /ˌfɔː(r) ˈwiːlə(r)/ a vehicle with four wheels, for example a car or truck More and more of these gas-guzzling four-wheelers are finding themselves out on the streets with a For Sale sign in their windows.

129

double glazing

dvojté sklo/zasklení n U /ˌdʌb(ə)l ˈɡleɪzɪŋ/ windows or doors that have two layers of glass, so that the building will be warmer and quieter They've fitted new double glazing.

130

vintage

vrcholný; nejlepší adj /ˈvɪntɪdʒ/ vintage wine is excellent in quality and was made several years ago She bought a bottle of vintage champagne.

131

pop in

zaskočit (na návštěvu) v /pɒp ɪn/ to go somewhere quickly or for a short time I was just passing and I thought I’d pop in and see how the work’s going.

132

pathway

cestička pro pěší n C  /ˈpɑːθˌweɪ/ a path that you can walk on There's a lovely pathway across the park.

133

power up

spustit; pohánět v /ˌpaʊə(r) ˈʌp/ to switch a computer on in the correct way Power up your computer and we’ll start.

134

merchandise

zboží n U /ˈmɜː(r)tʃ(ə)ndaɪz/ goods that people buy and sell The band sells a lot of merchandise at their concerts.

135

make a point of (doing) (sth)

předsevzít si, že phr /ˌmeɪk ə ˌpɔɪnt əv ˈduːɪŋ/ to be certain that you do something, usually in an obvious way From then on he made a point of avoiding her.

136

wind farm

větrná elektrárna n C /ˈwɪnd ˌfɑː(r)m/ a place where wind turbines are used for producing electricity from the power of the wind Several wind farms have been built in the area.

137

greenhouse gas

skleníkový plyn n C /ˌɡriːnhaʊs ˈɡæs/ a gas that stops heat from escaping from the atmosphere and causes the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere

138

cooperative

družstvo n C /kəʊˈɒp(ə)rətɪv/ a business or other organization owned by the people who work in it who also share the profits We're part of a housing cooperative.

139

make sense

dávat smysl phr /ˌmeɪk ˈsens/ to be practical and sensible It makes sense to keep such information on disk.

140

sledgehammer

mlat,železná palice n C /ˈsledʒˌhæmə(r)/ a long heavy hammer that you swing with both hands Dan knocked down the wall with a sledgehammer.

141

subsidize

dotovat v /ˈsʌbsɪdaɪz/ to pay some of the cost of goods or services so that they can be sold to other people at a lower price Meals in the cafeteria are subsidized by the company.

142

obarvit; barva; barvivo n C / v /daɪ/ a substance used for changing the colour of something such as clothing or your hair I've bought a bottle of hair dye.

dye

143

izolace n U /ˌɪnsjʊˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ material used for preventing heat, cold, noise, or electricity from passing through something Make sure that you have adequate loft insulation.

insulation

144

beze změny * adv /ɪnˈveəriəbli/ always, or almost always Victoria was invariably late.

invariably

145

zařízení, vybavení n pl /ˈfɜː(r)nɪʃɪŋz/ such things as furniture, carpets, and curtains The wallpaper should match the furnishings.

furnishings

146

přikrývka; deka ** n C /ˈblæŋkɪt/ a thick cover made of wool or another material that you use to keep warm in bed Soft furnishings, like blankets and cushions, will be particularly useful for the elderly.

blanket

147

rozebrat v /ˌteɪk tə ˈpiːsəz/ to separate something into its individual parts It looks like you’re taking the whole house to pieces!

take (sth) to pieces

148

nedostatek phr /ˈʃɔː(r)tɪdʒ əv/ a lack of something that you need or want Some countries are experiencing a shortage of clean water.

shortage of

149

překážka, bariéra ** n C /ˈbæriə(r)/ anything that prevents progress or makes it difficult for someone to achieve something Disability need not be a barrier to a successful career.

barrier

150

pesticid n C /ˈpestɪsaɪd/ a chemical used for killing insects, especially those that damage crops The trees have been sprayed with pesticides.

pesticide

151

prášek ** n U /ˈpaʊdə(r)/ a soft dry substance that looks like dust or sand The detergent is sold in both liquid and powder forms.

powder

152

vychovat; začít hovořit o v /ˌbrɪŋ ˈʌp/ to take care of a child until he or she becomes an adult Millions of Americans look to her to tell them how to bring up their children.

bring up

153

nadšení, elán; verva phr /ˈdraɪv fɔː(r)/ a big effort to achieve something, especially by a company or government The turn of the century was marked by the drive for super sizes.

drive for

154

hnojivo n C /ˈfɜː(r)təˌlaɪzə(r)/ a natural or chemical substance added to soil in order to help plants grow The farm uses a lot of sacks of fertiliser.

fertiliser

155

(auto) které strašně žere adj /ˈɡæs ˌɡʌz(ə)lɪŋ/ a gas-guzzling vehicle uses a lot of fuel More and more of these gas-guzzling four-wheelers are finding themselves out on the streets with a For Sale sign in their windows.

gas-guzzling

156

hodící se k sobě * adj /kəmˈpætəb(ə)l/ if one piece of computer equipment or software is compatible with another, they can be used together It is compatible with all the major phone manufacturers.

compatible

157

ruksak; batoh n C /ˈbækˌpæk/ a rucksack He put his sleeping bag at the bottom of his backpack.

backpack

158

buď a nebo (totální úspěch nebo nezdar) phr /ˌmeɪk ɔː(r) ˈbreɪk/ bringing either total success or total failure, and therefore very important It's a make-or-break decision for the manager.

make or break

159

zájem o… phr /ˈɪntrəst ˌɪn/ a feeling of wanting to know about or take part in something The interest in healthier food will also mean that we will be eating more and more organic food.

interest in

160

změna podnebí n U /ˈklaɪmət ˌtʃeɪndʒ/ the changes that are thought to be affecting the world’s weather so that it is becoming warmer The conference will address the problems of climate change.

climate change

161

bio jídlo n U /ɔː(r)ˌɡænɪk ˈfuːd/ organic food or drink is produced using only a small number of artificial chemicals The interest in healthier food will also mean that we will be eating more and more organic food.

organic food

162

znechucený; otrávený * adj /frʌˈstreɪtɪd/ feeling annoyed and impatient because you are prevented from achieving something Frustrated passengers have started to use other forms of transport.

frustrated

163

přídavek; doplněk; dodatek ** n C /ˈsʌplɪment/ a pill or special food that you take or eat when your food does not contain everything that you need We’ll be eating seaweed supplements along with most of our meals.

supplement

164

vánek ** n C /briːz/ a light wind It was a warm day but there was a gentle breeze.

breeze

165

zablokovat ** v /blɒk/ to stop someone from going forward or making progress Explore the problems and barriers blocking the client's way.

block

166

dotaz; otázka * n C /ˈkwɪəri/ a question that you ask because you want information or because you are not certain about something One of our staff will be available to answer your queries.

query

167

recyklovat * v /riːˈsaɪk(ə)l/ to change waste materials such as newspapers and bottles so that they can be used again Japan recycles 40% of its waste.

recycle

168

helma; ochranná přilba * n C /ˈhelmɪt/ a hard hat that you wear to protect your head He's wearing a motorcycle helmet.

helmet

169

pořádat večírek phr /ˌθrəʊ ə ˈpɑː(r)ti/ to organize a party, especially in your own home Let’s throw a dinner party for him.

throw a party

170

mít význam, vliv phr /ˌmeɪk ə ˈdɪfrəns/ to have an important effect on something, especially a good effect This scheme will certainly make a difference to the way I do my job.

make a difference

171

sukně skotského kroje n C /kɪlt/ a type of traditional Scottish clothing, similar to a skirt, worn by men. Kilts are made of woollen cloth in a pattern called tartan. He wore a kilt in MacIntosh tartan.

kilt

172

krvácet * v  /bliːd/ to have blood flowing from your body, for example from a cut You're bleeding!

bleed

173

kování; armatura * n pl /ˈfɪtɪŋz/ a small part that you connect to something We really need new bathroom fittings.

fittings

174

pošpinit v /ˈtɑː(r)nɪʃ/ if something tarnishes your reputation or image, it makes people have a worse opinion of you than they did before The revelations tarnished her image.

tarnish

175

dostat se do formy phr /ˌɡet ɪn ˈʃeɪp/ to improve your physical condition Ever tried to get in shape?

get in shape

176

prohlídka s výkladem n C /ˌɡaɪdɪd ˈtʊə(r)/ a short journey around a building or place with a person who tells you about what you are seeing or with a pair of headphones on which you can listen to a recorded description of what you are seeing They gave us a guided tour of the city.

guided tour

177

výsledný produkt n C /ˌend ˈprɒdʌkt/ the thing that is produced at the end of a process What are the end products of fermentation?

end product

178

retardér, zpomalovač n C /rɪˈtɑː(r)d(ə)nt/ a fire retardant is a mixture of chemicals which makes something difficult to burn The final fabric is bleached, dyed and sprayed with a fire retardant.

retardant

179

podstata phr /beə(r) bəʊnz/ the most basic features or details Anderson outlined the bare bones of his strategy.

bare bones

180

životní styl ** n U /ˈlaɪfˌstaɪl/ the type of life that you have, for example the type of job or house you have or the type of activity you like doing I try to live a healthy, outdoor lifestyle.

lifestyle

181

svléknout; odstrojit ** v /strɪp/ if you strip something down, you take something such as a machine apart First of all we're stripping the house down to its bare bones.

strip

182

PVC n U /ˌpiː viː ˈsiː/ polyvinyl chloride: a type of plastic used for making clothes, shoes, water pipes etc She's wearing a black PVC raincoat.

PVC

183

rafinovat; čistit v /rɪˈfaɪn/ to remove things from a natural substance in order to make it pure The powder is refined from pure oil.

refine

184

člověk pomáhající s životními rozhodnutími n C /ˈlaɪf ˌkəʊtʃ/ someone who provides advice and support to people who want to improve their lives, helping them to make decisions, solve problems, and achieve their goals She approached a life coach.

life coach

185

emise ** n C /ɪˈmɪʃ(ə)n/ the act of sending gas, light, or heat into the air Many countries are trying to limit the emission of greenhouse gases.

emission

186

astma * n U /ˈæsmə/ a medical condition that makes it difficult to breathe She had an attack of asthma.

asthma

187

výfukové plyny n C /ɪɡˈzɔːst ˌfjuːm/ gases or steam produced by an engine as it works Prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust fumes may cause chronic asthma.

exhaust fume

188

nabíječka n C /ˈtʃɑː(r)dʒə(r)/ a piece of equipment used for providing a battery with electricity Have you seen my phone charger?

charger

189

spláchnout; červenat se * v /flʌʃ/ to make water pass through a toilet If any medicine is left over, flush it down the toilet.

flush

190

síla vůle n U /ˈwɪlˌpaʊə(r)/ the ability to control your thoughts and behaviour in order to achieve something Dieting is just a matter of willpower.

willpower

191

udělat si čas na něco phr /ˌmeɪk ˈtaɪm fə(r)/ to find time to do something or be with someone in spite of being busy He’s finding it difficult to make time for his children.

make time for (sth)

192

termo taška n C /ˈθɜː(r)məs ˌbæɡ/ a container that keeps liquids hot or cold Thanks to new ultra-light materials, thermos bags and bottles will be lighter, smaller and easier to carry.

thermos bag

193

nárůst v… phr /ɪnˈkriːs ˌɪn/ to become larger in amount or number The club has been increasing in popularity.

increase in

194

uříznout; snížit v /kʌt daʊn ɒn/ to reduce an amount of something These improvements will cut down on traffic noise.

cut down on

195

chaluha; mořská řasa n C /ˈsiːˌwiːd/ a green or brown plant that grows in the sea At low tide the rocks are covered in seaweed.

seaweed

196

nákupní taška n C /ˈkæriə(r) ˌbæɡ/ a cheap bag that a shop gives you for carrying your goods home I've got a carrier bag full of shopping.

carrier bag

197

mozaika n C / U /məʊˈzeɪɪk/  a pattern or picture made of many small colored pieces of stone, glass, etc I’m going to build a mosaic wall in the kitchen!

mosaic

198

tvořit; podílet se na v /əˈkaʊnt fɔː(r)/ to form, use, or produce a particular amount or part of a group of people or things Electronic goods account for over 30% of our exports.

account for

199

padat, sletět v /ˈplʌmɪt/ if something such as an amount, rate, or value plummets, it suddenly becomes much lower Share prices plummeted today to a three-month low.

plummet

200

(vy)zdobit ** v /ˈdekəreɪt/ to put paint or paper on the walls of a room We decorated the kitchen last weekend.

decorate

201

fosilní palivo n C /ˈfɒs(ə)l ˌfjuːəl/ a fuel such as coal or oil, made from decayed material from animals or plants that lived many thousands of years ago We are still totally reliant on fossil fuels.

fossil fuel

202

rukavice ** n C /ɡlʌv/ a piece of clothing that covers your fingers and hands We’ll be able to read the football results on the palm of our gloves.

glove

203

představit si; mít chuť ** v /ˈfænsi/  to want to have or do something Do you fancy going to the cinema?

fancy

204

nafta * n U /ˈdiːz(ə)l/  heavy oil used as fuel instead of petrol in some engines Fill the tank with diesel.

diesel

205

znečišťovatel n C /pəˈluːtə(r)/ a person or company responsible for causing pollution The polluter will pay compensation to the farmers whose land they have polluted.

polluter

206

potrubní rozvody n U /ˈplʌmɪŋ/ the system of pipes, water tanks, and other equipment used for supplying and storing water in a building I spent all day trying to fix a leak in the plumbing.

plumbing

207

stanovit, vypíchnout, zdůraznit v /ˈpɪnˌpɔɪnt/ to discover or explain exactly what something is We’ve been unable to pinpoint the source of the problem.

pinpoint

208

výtažek; koncentrát ** v  /ɪkˈstrækt/ to remove a substance from another substance It's a method of extracting sulphur from copper ore.

extract

209

prach ** n U /dʌst/ very small pieces of dirt that cover surfaces inside buildings like a powder The dictionaries were covered in dust.

dust

210

schválit; schvalovat *** v /əˈpruːv/ to have a positive feeling towards someone or something that you consider to be good or suitable He seemed to approve of my choice.

approve

211

naplno něco využít phr /ˌmeɪk ðə ˈməʊst əv/ to use a good situation to get the best possible result It’s a beautiful day today. Let’s make the most of it.

make the most of (sth)

212

pneumatika ** n C /ˈtaɪə(r)/ a thick rubber cover that fits round the wheel of a bicycle, car, or other vehicle I need to change the tyres on my car.

tyre

213

inkoust * n C /ɪŋk/ a black or coloured liquid used for writing, drawing, or printing The price of ink cartridges is outrageous.

ink

214

postřikovat;sprej * v  /spreɪ/ to cover crops or a large area of land with a chemical spray in order to kill insects or prevent diseases In developing countries, more than 50% of all pesticides used in agriculture are sprayed onto cotton fields.

spray

215

vrstva *** n C /ˈleɪə(r)/ a piece of clothing that you wear underneath or over another piece of clothing Sweatshirts will change colour to show it's time to put on another layer.

layer

216

plážový oděv n U /ˈbiːtʃˌweə(r)/ light summer clothes that you wear on the beach We need to find a shop that sells beachwear and swimwear.

beachwear

217

telefonní linka; přístavba *** n C /ɪkˈstenʃ(ə)n/ an extra room or rooms added to a building We are building an extension on the back of our house.

extension

218

pokrok v phr /ədˈvɑːnsəz ɪn/ progress or an instance of progress in science, technology, human knowledge etc In recent years there have been major advances in computer technology.

advances in

219

najmout si ** v /ˈhaɪə(r)/ if you hire something, such as a car, room, or piece of equipment, you pay the owner so that you can use it, especially for a short time. The usual American word is rent You can hire a car at the airport.

hire

220

podlahové prkno n C /ˈflɔː(r)ˌbɔː(r)d/  a long wooden board that is part of a wooden floor I'm going to sand the floorboards at the weekend.

floorboard

221

nádrž na odpadní vodu z domácností n C /ˈɡreɪwɔːtə(r) ˌtæŋk/ a large metal container for waste water which has been used for domestic activities We don’t know when the greywater tank is coming.

greywater tank

222

tkanina; látka ** n C /ˈfæbrɪk/ cloth, especially when it is used for making things such as clothes or curtains She was wearing a dress made of a floral fabric.

fabric

223

holit (se) * v /ʃeɪv/ to make a part of your body smooth by cutting off the hair using a razor or shaver I cut myself while I was shaving.

shave

224

uhlík ** n U /ˈkɑː(r)bən/ a chemical element that is found in all living things, and can also exist as diamonds or coal The black carbon powder is refined from pure oil.

carbon

225

solární energie n C /ˈsəʊlə(r) ˌenə(r)dʒi/ energy that uses the power of the Sun’s light and heat to produce electricity The company is a pioneer in solar energy and solar heating installations.

solar energy

226

vzájemný ** adj /ˈmjuːtʃuəl/ belonging to or true of two or more people They were introduced by a mutual friend.

mutual

227

globální oteplování * n U /ˌɡləʊb(ə)l ˈwɔː(r)mɪŋ/ the slow increase in the temperature of the Earth caused partly by the greenhouse effect increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere The country is trying to help prevent man-made global warming.

global warming

228

záliba v… phr /ˈteɪst fɔː(r)/ if you have a taste for something, you like it Children will develop a taste for more and more complicated computer games.

taste for

229

přístroj, zařízení * n C /əˈplaɪəns/ a machine or piece of equipment that you have in your home, for example a washing machine or refrigerator We stock a wide range of kitchen appliances.

appliance

230

krok za krokem adj /ˌstep baɪ ˈstep/ a step-by-step plan or set of instructions is easy to follow and explains each stage of a process in a clear and simple way Read our step-by-step guide to home improvement.

step-by-step

231

složit; přehnout ** v /fəʊld/  if something folds, or if you can fold it, you can bend part of it so that it becomes smaller and easier to carry or store The bed folds away conveniently for storage.

fold

232

bakterie n C /dʒɜː(r)m/ a form of bacteria that spreads disease among people or animals It’s a germ that causes sore throats.

germ

233

dlaň; palma ** n C /pɑːm/ the inside part of your hand, between your fingers and your wrist We’ll be able to read the football results on the palm of our gloves.

palm

234

elektrické vedení; elektroinstalace n U /ˈwaɪərɪŋ/ the electric wires in a building, vehicle, or machine Faulty wiring may have caused the fire.

wiring

235

sluneční kolektor *** n C  /ˈsoʊlər ˌpæn(ə)l/ a piece of equipment that uses energy from the Sun to create power for a building These polycarbonate plastic bricks contain solar panels and a light source.

solar panel

236

látka; substance *** n C /ˈsʌbstəns/ a particular type of liquid, solid, or gas The wood is coated with a special substance that protects it from the sun.

substance

237

chutný * adj /ˈteɪsti/ tasty food has a nice flavour We will be able to keep food fresh and tasty out of the fridge for much longer.

tasty

238

spotřeba čeho phr /kənˈsʌmpʃ(ə)n ˌəv/ the amount that someone eats, drinks, or smokes Watch out for a huge increase in the consumption of seafoods.

consumption of

239

zájem o, poptávka phr /dɪˈmɑːnd fɔː(r)/ the amount of a product or service that people want, or the fact that they want it Demand for organic food is increasing.

demand for

240

samočistící adj /ˌselfˈkliːnɪŋ/ if something is self-cleaning it can remove dirt from itself It's possible to buy self-cleaning ovens.

self-cleaning

241

balení, obal * n U /ˈpækɪdʒɪŋ/ the activity of putting products into containers so that they can be sold in shops There have been big advances in packaging technology.

packaging

242

tunel; chodba ** n C /ˈtʌn(ə)l/ an underground passage through which vehicles travel They're building a tunnel under the river.

tunnel

243

kachlička; obkladačka; dlaždice n C /taɪl/ a flat square piece of baked clay or another substance used for covering a wall or a floor The floor was made from ceramic tiles.

tile

244

citlivý na teplo adj /ˈhiːtˌsensətɪv/ reacting quickly or strongly to being hot or cold Heat-sensitive fabrics will also be coming into their own with a hundred and one different uses.

heat-sensitive

245

ulehčit si to phr /ˌmeɪk ɪt ˈiːzɪə(r)/ to make something less difficult to do, or need less work How do they make it easier to decide what to do?

make it easier

246

sousední * adj /ˈneɪbərɪŋ/ near each other A lot of people from neighbouring towns came to the festival.

neighbouring

247

zahodit; zbavit se ** v /dʌmp/ to get rid of someone or something that you no longer want or need Over 150,000 tonnes of waste are dumped annually along the coastline.

dump

248

nádoba; nádrž *** n C /tæŋk/ a large metal container for liquid or gas The SUV has a large fuel tank.

tank

249

ikona * n C /ˈaɪkɒn/ someone who is very famous and who people think represents a particular idea He was one of the best-known pop icons of the 1980s.

icon

250

vrtačka; vrták * n C /drɪl/ a tool used for making a hole in something. A drill that uses electricity is called an electric drill and a drill that works when you turn a handle is called a hand drill There’s something wrong with that drill.

drill

251

mokrý ** adj /dæmp/ something that is damp is slightly wet, often in an unpleasant way or when it should be dry The wood won’t burn if it’s damp.

damp

252

velmi populární phr /ˌɔːl ðə ˈreɪdʒ/ very popular Internet shopping is now all the rage.

all the rage

253

rozbít v /ˌsmæʃ ˈʌp/ to destroy something completely by violently breaking it into many pieces She got angry and started smashing things up.

smash up

254

vybudovat; postavit * v /ɪˈrekt/ to build something such as a statue or bridge A memorial to her was erected after her death.

erect

255

automobil pro volný čas (sport-utility vehicle) n C /ˌes juː ˈviː/ a sports utility vehicle: a vehicle which has a system that provides power to all four wheels The much-loved American SUV (sports utility vehicle) is quickly losing its appeal.

SUV

256

číhat na; dávat si pozor na v /wɒtʃ ˈaʊt fɔː(r)/ to pay attention so that you will see something when it arrives or happens Watch out for cyclists.

watch out for

257

vyrobit; (vy)produkovat * n U /ˈprɒdjuːs/ fruit, vegetables, and other things that farmers grow The shop sells only organic produce.

produce

258

obnova; modernizace n C/U /ˌrenəˈveɪʃ(ə)n/ the process of making something old to look new again by repairing and improving it, especially a building The government has announced new laws to encourage eco renovations.

renovation

259

chronický * adj /ˈkrɒnɪk/ a chronic illness or chronic pain is serious and lasts for a long time. A serious illness or pain that lasts only for a short time is described as acute She suffers from chronic back pain.

chronic

260

odbarvit v /bliːtʃ/ to remove the colour from something with a chemical or through the action of sunlight Raw cloth is bleached and then dyed.

bleach

261

pustošivý; otřesný * adj /ˈdevəˌsteɪtɪŋ/ causing a lot of harm or damage Many people have had to leave their homes due to a devastating flood.

devastating

262

sarong (malajský oděv z jednoho kusu látky) n C /səˈrɒŋ/ a long wide piece of cloth that is tied around the waist to make a skirt or at the shoulder to make a dress. It is worn by men and women in Malaysia and some other countries. They showed me how to tie a sarong.

sarong

263

filtr ** n C /ˈfɪltə(r)/ an object or piece of equipment that allows you to remove solid parts that are not wanted from a liquid or gas We've started using a water filter.

filter

264

holicí strojek; žiletka * n C /ˈreɪzə(r)/ a small tool or piece of electrical equipment used for shaving (=removing hair from your skin) I normally use an electric razor.

razor

265

sutiny; trosky n U /ˈrʌb(ə)l/ broken pieces of stone and brick from buildings, walls etc that have been destroyed A bomb reduced the houses to rubble.

rubble

266

přístroj na broušení n C /ˈsændɪŋ məˌʃiːn/ a piece of equipment that makes something such as wood very smooth by rubbing it with sandpaper Winston’s hired one of those sanding machines.

sanding machine

267

integrovat, začlenit ** v /ˈɪntɪˌɡreɪt/ to connect or combine two or more things so that together they form an effective unit or system A whole range of clothes will be developed that can integrate electronics with fabrics.

integrate

268

geneticky modifikované potraviny n U /dʒəˌnetɪkli ˌmɒdɪfaɪd ˈfuːd/ food from a plant or animal that has had its genetic structure changed in order to make it more suited to a particular purpose Advances in genetically-modified food will revolutionize our diet.

genetically modified food

269

čtyřkolka n C /ˌfɔː(r) ˈwiːlə(r)/ a vehicle with four wheels, for example a car or truck More and more of these gas-guzzling four-wheelers are finding themselves out on the streets with a For Sale sign in their windows.

four wheeler

270

dvojté sklo/zasklení n U /ˌdʌb(ə)l ˈɡleɪzɪŋ/ windows or doors that have two layers of glass, so that the building will be warmer and quieter They've fitted new double glazing.

double glazing

271

vrcholný; nejlepší adj /ˈvɪntɪdʒ/ vintage wine is excellent in quality and was made several years ago She bought a bottle of vintage champagne.

vintage

272

zaskočit (na návštěvu) v /pɒp ɪn/ to go somewhere quickly or for a short time I was just passing and I thought I’d pop in and see how the work’s going.

pop in

273

cestička pro pěší n C  /ˈpɑːθˌweɪ/ a path that you can walk on There's a lovely pathway across the park.

pathway

274

spustit; pohánět v /ˌpaʊə(r) ˈʌp/ to switch a computer on in the correct way Power up your computer and we’ll start.

power up

275

zboží n U /ˈmɜː(r)tʃ(ə)ndaɪz/ goods that people buy and sell The band sells a lot of merchandise at their concerts.

merchandise

276

předsevzít si, že phr /ˌmeɪk ə ˌpɔɪnt əv ˈduːɪŋ/ to be certain that you do something, usually in an obvious way From then on he made a point of avoiding her.

make a point of (doing) (sth)

277

větrná elektrárna n C /ˈwɪnd ˌfɑː(r)m/ a place where wind turbines are used for producing electricity from the power of the wind Several wind farms have been built in the area.

wind farm

278

skleníkový plyn n C /ˌɡriːnhaʊs ˈɡæs/ a gas that stops heat from escaping from the atmosphere and causes the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere

greenhouse gas

279

družstvo n C /kəʊˈɒp(ə)rətɪv/ a business or other organization owned by the people who work in it who also share the profits We're part of a housing cooperative.

cooperative

280

dávat smysl phr /ˌmeɪk ˈsens/ to be practical and sensible It makes sense to keep such information on disk.

make sense

281

mlat,železná palice n C /ˈsledʒˌhæmə(r)/ a long heavy hammer that you swing with both hands Dan knocked down the wall with a sledgehammer.

sledgehammer

282

dotovat v /ˈsʌbsɪdaɪz/ to pay some of the cost of goods or services so that they can be sold to other people at a lower price Meals in the cafeteria are subsidized by the company.

subsidize