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Flashcards in Unit 7 Deck (133):
1

Three parts which make up a neuron

-cell body
-dendrites
-axon

2

dendrites

root-like structures that receive impulses and conduct them toward the cell body (dendr/o)

3

the axon

extends away from the cell body and conducts the impulse away from the nerve body. (ax/o)

4

Central Nervous System

Made up with the brain and spinal cord which is protected by fluid & a series of membranes.

5

Peripheral Nervous System

consists of cranial nerves which extend from the brain, and spinal nerves which come from the spinal cord

6

Autonomic Nervous System

Consists of ganglia on either side of the spinal cord. Control involuntary actions of the body (heart rate, breathing)

7

Neurotransmitters

chemical substances that help impulses to jump from one nerve cell to another

There are at least 40 in the body

8

Synapse

the space between the nerve cells - impulse travels down the synapse, then a neurotransmitter is released so the impulse jumps to the next neuron

9

Cerebrum

the largest part of the brain, and receives impulses from all areas of the body.

10

Cerebral Cortex

the outer layer of the cerebrum, involved in sensory and motor function, thought, judgement, and perception

11

each brain hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital

12

Thalamus

relay station for impulses coming into the brain. Responsible for detection of touch, temperature, and pain

13

Hypothalamus

helps regulate the functions of the autonomic nervous system: appetite, thirst, temperature, sleep cycles, water retention

14

Brain Stem

site of basic life functions: breathing, heart beat, blood pressure, sight & hearing.
Also responsible for coughing, sneezing, swallowing

15

Cerebellum

responsible for balance, coordination, and equilibrium

16

Skull

bones that protect the brain tissue from external trauma

17

Meninges

three membranes that cover the brain tissue

18

name the three membranes that make up the meninges

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

19

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid located in the space between the arachnoid mater & pia mater, acts as a cushion to absorb trauma during a head injury

20

blood-brain barrier

mechanism to prevent dangerous or toxic substances from leaving the blood stream and entering the brain

21

Number of cranial nerves

12 pairs, named for the area they affect/function they are responsible for (ie eyes, face, mouth)

22

Number of spinal nerves

31 pairs, generally named for the artery they accompany or body part they affect

23

Autonomic Nervous System is divided into 2 parts

parasympathetic and sympathetic systems

24

sympathetic system

prepares the body for emergency/stressful situations

25

parasympathetic system

returns your body to a state of calm after a stressful situation, and maintains bodily functions during ordinary circumstances

26

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (uses radio waves & strong magnetic field to create images)

27

CAT scan

Computerized Axial Tomography scan (uses x-ray beam that rotates around the body and examines the structure at various depths)

28

4 injuries to the nervous system

-inflammation
-trauma
-decrease in blood circulation = tissue death
-congenital injuries

29

ax/o

axon

30

cephal/o

head

31

cerebell/o

cerebellum

32

cerebr/o

brain

33

encephal/o

brain

34

cortic/o

cortex, outer covering

35

dendr/o

dendrite

36

dur/o

dura mater

37

gangli/o

ganglion

38

ganglion/o

ganglion

39

hydr/o

water

40

magnet/o

magnet

41

medull/o

medulla, inner section

42

mening/o

meninges, membrane

43

meningi/o

meninges, membrane

44

myel/o

spinal cord, bone marrow

45

narc/o

numbness

46

neur/o

nerve

47

neur/i

nerve

48

noct/i

night

49

radicul/o

nerve root

50

somn/i

sleep

51

somn/o

sleep

52

spin/o

spine

53

synaps/o

synapse

54

synapt/o

synapse

55

thalam/o

thalamus

56

vetricul/o

ventricles

57

-esthesia

sensation, feeling

58

-graphy

process of recording, producing images

59

-kinesia

movement, motion

60

-kinesis

movement, motion

61

-taxia

order

62

de-

lack of, removal

63

epi-

above, upon

64

pachy-

thick

65

cerebellar

pertaining to the cerebellum

66

crebral

pertaining to the brain

67

cerebrospinal

pertaining to the brain and spine

68

cerebrovascular

pertaining to the brain and blood vessels

69

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

70

encephalomalacia

softening of the brain

71

cortical

pertaining to the cortex

72

cortiospinal

pertaining to the cortex and spine

73

epidural

pertaining to above the dura matar

74

subdural

pertaining to under the dura matar

75

hydrocephalus

pertaining to an accumulation of fluid in the brain

76

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

77

meningoencephalitis

inflammation of the meninges and the brain

78

myelogram

record of the spinal cord

79

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

80

polio-

gray

81

myoneural

pertaining to the muscle and nerve

82

neuralgia

nerve pain

83

neurology

study of the nervous system

84

neurologist

specialist in the diagnosis & treatment of nervous system diseases

85

neurolysis

nerve destruction

86

myeloradiculitis

inflammation of the spinal cord and nerve roots

87

thalamocortical

pertaining to the thalmus and cerebral cortex

88

ventriculostomy

creating a permanent new opening into the ventricles

89

cephalagia

pain in the head (headache)

90

encephalocele

hernia of the brain

91

meningocele

hernia of the meninges

92

myelomeningocele

hernia of the spinal cord and meninges

93

lobectomy

surgical excision of a lobe of the brain

94

craniectomy

surgical removal of a part of the skull

95

anesthesia

no sensation

96

hyposthesia

decreased sensation

97

paresthesia

abnormal sensation

98

cerebral angiography

graphic x-ray image of the vessels in the brain

99

computerized axial tomography

x-ray beam that creates a picture of various depths of the brain

100

electroencephalography

process of recording the electric impulses in the brain

101

myelography

x-ray image of the spinal cord

102

hyperkinesis

excessive movement, hyperactivity

103

dyskinesia

difficult movement

104

meningioma

tumor of the meninges

105

myeloma

tumor of the spinal cord

106

neurotomy

surgical incision into a nerve

107

encephalopathy

disease of the brain

108

neuropathy

disease of the nerve

109

aphasia

no speech

110

dysphasia

difficult speech

111

hemiplegia

paralysis of half (either left or right side) of the body

112

monoplegia

paralysis of one extremity

113

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower part of the body and legs

114

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs

115

ataxia

no muscle coordination

116

demylination

loss of the myelin sheath

117

alzheimer's disease

severe form of senile dementia, possibly due to a defect in the neurotransmitter system. There is cortical destruction that causes variable degrees of confusion, memory loss, and other cognitive defects

118

anorexia nervosa

a psychological disorder in which the individual refuses to eat, or has an aberrant eating pattern

119

coma

an unconscious state or stupor from which the patient cannot be aroused

120

epilepsy

a disorder of cerebral function resulting from abnormal electrical activity or a malfunctioning of the chemical substances of the brain

121

herpes zoster

Shingles, an acute viral disease characterized by painful vesicular eruptions along the segment of the spinal or cranial nerves

122

paresis

a slight, partial, or incomplete paralysis

123

parkinson disease

A chronic disease of the nervous system. it is characterized by a loss of equilibrium and by salivation, frustration, nausea, dryness of the mouth, and muscular tremors, syncope, and fainting.

124

ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

125

ANS

Autonomic Nervous System

126

CNS

Central Nervous System

127

CSF

CerebroSpinal Fluid

128

CT

Computerized Tomography

129

CVA

CerebroVascular Accident

130

LP

Lumbar Puncture

131

MS

Multiple Sclerosis

132

PNS

Peripheral Nervous System

133

TIA

Transcient Ischemic Attack