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Flashcards in Unit 7 Deck (72):
1

Which of these is NOT an omnibus term?
a. Appetitive stimulus
b. Aversive stimulus
c. Conditioned stimulus
d. Unconditioned establishing operation for reinforcement

d. Unconditioned establishing operation for reinforcement
(Not a stimulus!)

2

An omnibus term is a term that is used to refer to a:
a. stimulus that has multiple functions.
b. stimulus that has unknown functions.
c. stimulus class.
d. topographical response class.

a. stimulus that has multiple functions.

3

Correct or incorrect use of “omnibus term”? Salty food elicits salivation, reinforces behavior that precedes its delivery, and evokes behavior that is maintained by getting water. Thus, salty food is an omnibus term.
a. Correct use of term
b. Incorrect use of term

b. Incorrect use of term

4

If a salty food evokes behavior that is maintained by getting water, it is better to say that salty food is an appetitive stimulus (an omnibus term) than it is to say that salty food is an unconditioned establishing operation.
a. True
b. False

b. False
Trick question!
There is only ONE function of salty food being discussed here

5

Aversive Stimuli:
-Establish motivation & evokes behaviour that removes the stimuli: EO for SR-

-Reinforces & increase behaviour that PRECEDE their OFFSET (consequence): SR-

-Punish & decrease behaviour that PRECEDE their ONSET (consequence): SP+

-can be part of a reflex response (smooth muscle and glands) (UE)

Presentation of Aversive Stimuli:
-A loud peer establishes motivation to remove the sound and evokes behaviour that removes it

-Peer screaming - leave the room - no screaming: Leaving the room INCREASES

-Move towards peer - peer screams: Moving towards peer DECREASES

-A scream elicits a spike in blood pressure

6

Match this effect of an aversive stimulus to its proper functional term. Aversive stimuli may elicit smooth muscle and gland responses:
a. EO for S R-
b. S DP
c. S P+
d. S R-
e. UE

e. UE

7

Match this effect of an aversive stimulus to its proper functional term. The onset of an aversive stimulus may weaken behavior that precedes its onset:
a. EO for SR-
b. S DP
c. S P+
d. S R-

c. S P+

8

Match this effect of an aversive stimulus to its proper functional term. The sound of Barry Manilowsinging evokes me turning the radio off:
a. EO for S R-
b. S DP
c. S P+
d. S R-

a. EO for S R-

9

Appetitive stimulus:
-Abolishes motivation & abates behaviour that removes the stimuli: AO for SR-

-Punish & decrease behaviour that PRECEDE their OFFSET (consequence): SP-

-Reinforces & increase behaviour that PRECEDE their ONSET (consequence): SR+

-can be part of a reflex response (smooth muscle and glands) (UE)

Appetitive stimulus:
-Youtube videos abolish motivation to scratch

-Demand - Scratches - No videos: scratching DECREASES

-Demand - Answers quickly - Youtube videos: Answering quickly INCREASES

-Food elicits salivation

10

Match this effect of an appetitive stimulus to its proper functional term. Seeing sashimi, contingent on ordering, strengthened ordering the sashimi:
a. EO for R+
b. S D
c. S P-
d. S R+
e. UE

b. S D

11

Match this effect of an appetitive stimulus to its proper functional term. The sashimi quickly disappearing from the plate, contingent on sharing, weakened sharing:
a. EO for S R+
b. S D
c. S P-
d. S R+
e. UE

c. S P-

12

Match this effect of an appetitive stimulus to its proper functional term. Sashimi on the tongue elicited salivation:
a. EO for S R+
b. S D
c. S P-
d. S R+
e. UE

e. UE

13

What omnibus term would best be used for the clanking of the magazine in the previous example of multiple effects?
a. Appetitive stimulus
b. Aversive stimulus
c. Conditioned stimulus

a. Appetitive stimulus

14

Now, when Jose was out delivering papers and he heard a dog bark, he did not go into the dog owner’s yard and he did not deliver the newspaper. The bark now functioned as a(n):
a. aversive stimulus.
b. conditioned elicitor.
c. discriminative stimulus for punishment.
d. unconditioned EO for reinforcement.

c. discriminative stimulus for punishment.
(Most specific)

15

Now, when Jose was out delivering papers and he heard a dog bark, his heart rate increased and he began to perspire! The bark now functioned as a(n):
a. aversive stimulus.
b. conditioned elicitor.
c. CEO-R for negative reinforcement.
d. discriminative stimulus for punishment.

b. conditioned elicitor.

16

What omnibus term would best be used for the dog’s bark in the previous example of multiple effects?
a. Appetitive stimulus
b. Aversive stimulus
c. Conditioned stimulus
d. Unconditioned stimulus

b. Aversive stimulus

17

The stimulus change produced by each response in the chain other than the last response is termed a(n):
a. conditioned reinforcer.
b. conditioned stimulus.
c. link.
d. S D

c. link.

18

The stimulus change produced by putting the money in the soda machine functions as a conditioned reinforcer for:
a. taking the money out of your pocket.
b. putting the money in the soda machine.
c. pushing the button marked Coke ® .
d. grabbing the can of Coke ® .

b. putting the money in the soda machine.

19

The stimulus change produced by putting the money in the soda machine functions as an S D for:
a. taking the money out of your pocket.
b. putting the money in the soda machine.
c. pushing the button marked Coke ® .
d. grabbing the can of Coke ® .

c. pushing the button marked Coke ® .

20

“Induction is the spread of the effects of reinforcement to responses outside the limits of an operant class.”

Induction is the spreading of the effects of reinforcement in accord with the degree of similarity between different forms of responding.

21

Induction is also known as:

1. Response generalization
2. Response induction

22

Is the following an example of response generalization? Jack practices table tennis for many hours and he achieves mastery. Even though he hardly ever plays tennis on a court, his tennis game also improves.
a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes
The stimulus changes (table vs court) but the response also changes (how to play at table, how to play in court)

23

Is the following an example of response generalization? Sue learns to say “Daddy” when she sees her father. Sue also says “Daddy” when she sees other adult males.
a. Yes
b. No

b. No

24

Is the following an example of induction? We reinforce stopping at a red light. Even though we never reinforced stopping at a yellow light, Harvey now also stops at a yellow light.
a. Yes
b. No

b. No
Induction would be responding to a red light by either stopping or slowing down

25

Is the following an example of induction? Mom praises her son’s dishwashing behavior, resulting in an increase in dishwashing behavior. This also leads to an increase in his vacuuming behavior, despite the fact that Mom never praised vacuuming.
a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes

26

Differentiation: Reinforce one response, other responses DECREASE
Induction/Response Generalization: Reinforce one response, other responses INCREASE

Discrimination: Reinforce R in one context, R DECREASES in other contexts
Stimulus Generalization: Reinforce R in one context, R INCREASES in other contexts

27

Is the following an example of differentiation? When Jill grabs her fork with her right hand she gets food into her mouth; when she grabs her fork with her left hand, she misses her mouth. Eventually she only uses her right hand to grab her fork.
a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes
Stimulus: food
Response: right hand, left hand
Stimulus: Food, Ext

28

Is the following an example of differentiation? When Jill buys meat at Petty’s it is always good and the family praises the meal. However, if she buys meat at Wally’s it is below prime and her family says nothing. She now only buys meat at Petty’s.
a. Yes
b. No

b. No
Stimulus: Petty's, Wally's
Response: buying meat
Stimulus: Praise, ext

29

Is the following an example of differentiation? When Mark speaks loudly, he gets what he asks for. However, he does not get what he asks for when he whispers. Now Mark speaks loudly and no longer whispers.
a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes

30

Sue earns stickers for completing a certain number of problems. Today Sue is working on a very difficult math assignment. How could you change the reinforcement parameter?
a. Give her fewer math problems
b. Give her more stickers

b. Give her more stickers
Can only alter the reinforcer!

31

Todd earns video game time for helping his Mom with the laundry. How could his Mom change a reinforcement parameter?
a. Alter the time he is allowed to play video games after task completion
b. Reinforce each step in the task

a. Alter the time he is allowed to play video games after task completion
Altering the frequency of reinforcers is schedule.

32

Todd earns video game time for helping his Mom with the laundry. How could his Mom change a reinforcement parameter?
a. Alter the time he is allowed to play video games after task completion
b. Reinforce each step in the task

a. Alter the time he is allowed to play video games after task completion
Altering the frequency of reinforcers is schedule.

33

A schedule of reinforcement is the rule which describes or specifies which _______ will be followed by __________ and which will not.

A schedule of reinforcement is the rule which describes or specifies which responses will be followed by reinforcement and which will not.

34

Schedules of reinforcement are formal ______ and _____ relationships between a response and reinforcement.

Schedules of reinforcement are formal time and number relationships between a response and reinforcement.

35

CRF

Continuous Reinforcement

36

Continuous reinforcement is generally used to:
a. Establish or strengthen behavior
b. Weaken behavior
c. Maintain behavior

a. Establish or strengthen behavior

37

When either the number of responses or the interval remains constant, the schedule is a(n):
a. Fixed schedule
b. Interval schedule
c. Ratio schedule
d. Variable schedule

a. Fixed schedule

38

Reinforcement is delivered for the first response after a certain amount of time since the last reinforcement in:
a. Fixed schedules
b. Interval schedules
c. Ratio schedules
d. Variable schedules

b. Interval schedules

39

When either the number of responses or the length of the interval is random, but centers around a particular value, the schedule is a(n):
a. Fixed schedule
b. Interval schedule
c. Ratio schedule
d. Variable schedule

d. Variable schedule

40

Reinforcement is delivered contingent on a certain number of responses in:
a. Fixed schedules
b. Interval schedules
c. Ratio schedules
d. Variable schedules

c. Ratio schedules

41

A dime is placed in a jar for every 5 dishes Josh washes.
a. CRF
b. Fixed Interval (FI)
c. Fixed Ratio (FR)
d. Variable Interval (VI)
e. Variable Ratio (VR)

c. Fixed Ratio (FR)

42

A dime is placed in a jar for about every 5 dishes Josh washes.
a. CRF
b. Fixed Interval (FI)
c. Fixed Ratio (FR)
d. Variable Interval (VI)
e. Variable Ratio (VR)

e. Variable Ratio (VR)

43

Jim praises Bo for cooperative play and leaves the area. He comes back 5 minutes later and provides praise the first time he catches Bo playing; this is repeated exactly the same way:
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

a. Fixed Interval (FI)

44

Jim praises Bo for cooperative play and leaves the area. He comes back 5 minutes later, and provides praise the first time he catches Bo playing; this is repeated, but Jim comes back in 4 minutes, then in 6 minutes....
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

c. Variable Interval (VI)

45

Jay gets a cookie when he asks for one but only after one hour has elapsed since the last time he got a cookie for asking:
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

????????????????????

46

Jay gets a cookie every hour on the hour:
a. CRF Schedule
b. Interval Schedule
c. Ratio Schedule
d. None of the above

d. None of the above

47

A limited hold _______ response rate and does not _____ the basic response pattern

A limited hold increases response rate and does not change the basic response pattern

48

A food pellet is delivered when a rat presses a lever after 2 minutes have passed since the last lever press was reinforced. Is this an example of a limited hold?
a. Yes
b. No

b. No

49

A food pellet is delivered when a rat presses a lever after 2 minutes have passed since the last lever press was reinforced, but the response must occur within 30 seconds after the 2 minute interval. Is this an example of a limited hold?
a. Yes
b. No

a. Yes

50

A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules:

Ratio Strain

51

What schedule produces high rates with pause and burst?
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

b. Fixed Ratio (FR)

52

What schedule produces low to moderate but steady responding?
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

c. Variable Interval (VI)

53

What schedule produces a scalloped pattern?
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

a. Fixed Interval (FI)

54

What schedule produces very high and steady responding?
a. Fixed Interval (FI)
b. Fixed Ratio (FR)
c. Variable Interval (VI)
d. Variable Ratio (VR)

d. Variable Ratio (VR)

55

A variable schedule (e.g., VR100) produces less of a pause in responding after reinforcement than is produced in a comparable value fixed schedule (e.g., FR100).
a. True
b. False

a. True

56

The thinner the schedule, the greater the pause after reinforcement.
a. True
b. False

a. True

57

Ratio schedules produce higher rates of responding than interval schedules.
a. True
b. False

a. True

58

Variable schedules produce uneven responding.
a. True
b. False

b. False

59

Fixed schedules produce steady responding.
a. True
b. False

b. False

60

Which of the following is an example of a time-based schedule?
a. Giving a child a candy bar for reading 3 books
b. Giving a child a candy bar every 48 hours
c. Giving a child a candy bar after sitting for 5 minutes

b. Giving a child a candy bar every 48 hours

61

Food pellet is delivered after a pigeon pecks a key 20 times. This is a _________schedule.
a. fixed interval
b. fixed ratio
c. time-based

b. fixed ratio

62

Food pellet is delivered every 2 minutes. This is a _______ schedule.
a. fixed interval
b. fixed ratio
c. time-based

c. time-based

63

Jim is given $1 immediately after he assembles three flashlights. This is a _______schedule.
a. fixed interval
b. fixed ratio
c. time-based

b. fixed ratio

64

Jim is given $1 every 10 minutes. This is a _______schedule.
a. fixed interval
b. fixed ratio
c. time-based

c. time-based

65

While Jim is working, he is given $1 every 10 minutes. This is a ______ schedule.
a. fixed interval
b. fixed ratio
c. time-based

a. fixed interval

66

Differential reinforcement of high rates of responding (DRH) schedules require that a minimum number of responses occur in a given time period.
a. True
b. False

a. True

67

A dog in a competition must jump through 20 hoops in 3 minutes to earn a bone. If the dog jumps all 20 hoops but takes longer than 3 minutes, he does not get the bone.
a. DRH
b. Not a DRH

a. DRH

68

When setting criteria for reinforcement using DRH, the criteria is set between baseline rate and the lowest rate during baseline.
a. True
b. False

b. False

69

Formula for DRH

# responses/time
Number of reponses in a given time

70

Formula for DRH-IRT

time/#responses
Time taken to complete a given number of responses

71

When setting criteria for reinforcement using DRH-IRT, the criteria is set between baseline rate and the lowest rate during baseline.
a. True
b. False

a. True

72

DRH-IRT stands for ______ and is also called ______

DRH-IRT stands for differential reinforcement of high rates of inter-response time and is also called Spaced Responding DRH.