Unit 7- Cognition (8-10%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7- Cognition (8-10%) Deck (76):
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Belief perseverance

The tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contradicting evidence

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Intuition

Effortless, immediate, feeling or thought

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Overconfidence

Tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgements

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Flashbulb Memories

A vivid, enduring memory when one learns about a surprising or shocking event

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Retroactive Interference

A phenomenon that occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information

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Proactive Interference

(Forward acting) when previous information learned disrupts your recall of something you experience later

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Hermann Ebbinghaus

Ebbinghaus focused on how fast we forget and how much we forget. He created a forgetting curve that is know as Ebbinghaus curve. This showed that knowledge fades quickly and than levels out.

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Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

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Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.

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Representativeness Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.

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Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common.

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Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning.

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Storage

The retention of encoded information over time.

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Parallel processing

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrast with step by step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.

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Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meaning.

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Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

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Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set.

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One-word Stage

The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

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Two-word Stage

Beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in 2 word statements.

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Telegraphic Speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs.

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Linguistic Determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

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Babbling Stage

Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household sounds.

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Spacing effect

We retain information better when our rehearsal is distributed over time

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Testing effect

Helps to rehearse the material and figure out what you do not know

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Recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only iden- tify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

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Recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve in- formation learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

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Rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to main- tain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

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Source Amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category.

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Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently.

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Confirmation Bias

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

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Source Amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category.

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Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently.

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Mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

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Phonemes

In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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Memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

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Visual encoding

The encoding of pictures and images

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Acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

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Mnemonics

memory aids, especially those tech- niques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

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Semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.

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Serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

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Sensory Memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory in- formation in the memory system.

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Iconic Memory

momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

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Echoic Memory

momentary sensory memory of auditory stim- uli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

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Selective Attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a par- ticular stimulus.

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Morphemes

The smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)

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Noam Chomsky

Argues that we are born with language acquisition device that biologically prepares us to learn language and equips us with universal grammar

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from concours es anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories

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Misinformation Effect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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State-dependent learning

When it is more easily recalled when you are in the same state as you were when it happened

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Anterograde amnesia

The loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Retrograde amnesia

the loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.

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Long-term potentiation

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

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Short-term(working) memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

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Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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Long-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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Episodic memory

Involves remembering episodes and memories that have happened in your life

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Semantic memory

The general world knowledge that we have accumulated over life

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Retrieval

Later getting information back out of our brain

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct: to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

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Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

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Syntax

The rules of combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

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Belief perseverance

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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Flashbulb memories

flashbulb memory is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself.

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Tip of the tongue phenomenon

I'm having a retrieval error, I know this definition but I can't quite think of it.

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Eidetic memory

an ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory after only a few instances of exposure, with high precision for some time after exposure, without using mnemonics.

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Procedural memory

part of the long-term memory that is responsible for knowing how to do things, also known as motor skills. Procedural memory stores information on how to perform certain procedures, such as walking, talking and riding a bike

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Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought

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Implicit memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection

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Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that we can consciously know and "declare"

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Prospective Memory

a form of memory that involves remembering to perform a planned action or intention at some future point in time.

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Divergent Thinking

a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.

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Convergent Thinking

the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity, for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests for intelligence