Flashcards in Unit 7-Organic chemistry Deck (58):
What is a hydrocarbon?
Any compound that is formed from carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
What are alkanes?
The simplest type of hydrocarbon you can get. They are saturated carbons.
What type of series are alkanes?
A homologous series.
What are the first four alkanes?
The shorter the hydrocarbon is ...
The least reactive it is. The more flammable it is. The lower the boiling point.
What is the word equation for complete combustion?
hydrocarbon+oxygen = carbon dioxide+water(+energy)
Why are hydocarbons used as fuels?
They release a lot of energy when they combust completely.
What is crude oil?
A fossil fuel.
Why are short hydrocarbons in such a big demand?
They are flammable and so make good fuels.
Why are long hydrocarbons not as useful?
They only form thick gloopy liquids such as tar which isn't that useful.
What type of reaction is cracking?
A thermal decomposition reaction.
What are the steps to catalytic cracking?(3 points)
1)Heat the long-chain hydrocarbons to vaporise them.
2)The vapour is passed over a hot powdered aluminium oxide catalyst.
3)The long-chain molecules split apart on the surface of the specks of catalyst.
What are alkenes?
Hydrocarbons which have a double bond between two of the carbon atoms in their chain.
What does the C=C bond mean in terms of hydrogen?
They have fewer hydrogens compared to alkanes containing the same number of carbon atoms.
Are alkenes more reactive than alkanes?
Are alkanes more reactive than alkenes?
Which are more reactive... alkanes or alkenes?
What are the first four alkenes?
In a large amount of oxygen what happens to alkenes?
They combust completely.
What is the formula for the incomplete combustion of alkenes.
alkene+oxygen=carbon+carbon monoxide+carbon dioxide+water.(+energy)
What is a functional group?
A group of atoms in a molecule that determines how that molecule typically reacts.
What is it called when you add hydrogen?
What happens when alkenes react with steam?
Water is added across the double bond and an alcohol is formed.
What happens when orange bromine water is added to a saturated compound,like an alkane?
No reaction will happen and it will stay bring orange.
What happens if orange bromine water is added to an alkene?
The bromine will move across the double bond making it a colourless dibromide compound.
What are polymers?
Long molecules formed when lots of small molecules called monomers join together.
What is it called when lots of monomers join together to form polymers?
What does polymerisation usually need?
A catalyst and high pressure.
What is addition polymerisation?
When unsaturated monomer molecules open up their double bonds and join together to form polymer chains.
Do the monomers that make up addition polymers have a double covalent bond?
What do all alcohols contain?
An -OH group.
What are the first four alcohols in the homologous series?
Are alcohols flammable?
When alcohol does complete combustion in air what does it produce?
Carbon dioxide and water.
Are all of the first alcohols in the homologous series soluble?
What is the PH of the first four alcohols in the homologous series?
When alcohols are oxidised what does it produce?
A carboxylic acid.
What carboxylic acid does methanol form in oxidation?
What carboxylic acid does ethanol form when it is oxidised?
What can the first four types of alcohol be used as?
Why are the first four alcohols used as spirit-burners?
It burns fairly cleanly and it doesn't smell.
How is ethanol usually made?
How does fermentation work?
It uses an enzyme in yeast to convert sugars into ethanol.
What is the word equation for fermentation?
sugar (yeast)=ethanol+carbon dioxide.
What conditions does fermentation work best at?
At 37 degrees and in slightly acidic conditions without oxygen.
What are carboxylic acids?
A homologous series of compounds that all have -COOH as a functional group.
What do the carboxylic acids end in?
Can carboxylic acids react in water?
When carboxylic acids react what do they produce?
A salt , water and carbon dioxide.
What do the salts formed in carboxylic reactions end in?
What happens when carboxylic acids dissolve in water?
They ionise and release H+ ions resulting in an acidic solution.
What functional group do esters have?
What are esters formed by?
An alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
What does condensation polymerisation involve?
monomers which contain different functional groups.
What products are formed in condensation polymerisation?
The polymer and a small molecule such as water.
What two types of functional group does an amino acid contain?
A basic amino group and an acidic carboxyl group.
Give an example of an amino acid.