Unit 8- Motivation and Emotion (6-8%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8- Motivation and Emotion (6-8%) Deck (51):
1

Bulimia Nervosa

Emotional disorder with an obsessive desire to lose weight in which overeating is followed by depression, vomiting, and purging

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Binge-eating disorder

 

Mental illness characterized by regular episodes of binge eating

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Obesity

 

Condition of being grossly overweight

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Set-point

Theory that the body has an internal control mechanism located in the hypothalamus in the brain

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Sexual response cycle stages

Excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

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Lewin: Approach- Approach Conflict

one of Kurt Lewin's basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is attracted to 2 appealing goals; the stress in this type of conflict is the fact that in choosing one desirable option, the individual must give up another desirable option

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Lewin: Approach-Avoidance conflict

one of Kurt Lewin's basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is both attracted to and repelled by the same goal; the most common form of conflict; there is both good and bad about the goal; the tendency to avoid increases as an individual gets closer to the goal

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Lewin: Avoidance- Avoidance conflict

one of Kurt Lewin's basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is attracted to 2 possibilities are undesirable or threatening and do not any positive features; people tend to "escape" the situation or choose the possibility which is the least worst or wait for the situation to resolve the conflict for the individual

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Lewin: multiple approach-avoidance conflict

A conflict involving a choice between two or more options, each of which has both positive and negative aspects

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James-Lange Theory of Emotion

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotional arousing stimuli

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Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

The theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses, and the subjective experience of emotion

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Schachter-Singer (two-factor) Theory of Emotion

the theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

13

General Adaptation Syndrome

Describes the general response people have to a stressful event.

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Positive Psychology

The science and applications related to the study of psychological strengths and positive emotions

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Social Readjustment Scale

For the chance of future illness/accident through by measuring the amount of "life change units" .

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Facial Feedback

The idea that facial expressions trigger the experience of emotion

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Catharsis

emotional release; in psychology, the hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

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Feel-good, do good phenomenon

peoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

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Relative deprivation

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares ones self

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Psychoneuroimmunology

the interactions among behavioral, neuroendocrine, and immunological processes of adaptation; self vs. foreign

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Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are white blood cells that travel in the blood stream and defend the body from abnormal cells, disease-causing bacteria and viruses.

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Motivation

Feelings or ideas that cause us to act toward a goal

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Instincts

automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses

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Arousal

we are motivated by activities that help us achieve our needed level of stimulation

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Primary drives

biological needs (ex: thirst)

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Instinct Theory of Motivation

all organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive. This theory suggests that instincts drive all behaviors

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Arousal Theory of Motivation

we do more than react only to our bodies and the environment. We are curious and have an inner drive to “go further"

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Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

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Homeostasis

is the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; theregulation of any aspect of body chemistry.

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Yerkes- Dodson Law

we might perform well at an easy task with a very high arousal level the same high level would worsen our performance on a difficult task

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Metabolism

the least number of physical and chemical processes with which an organism must maintain to maintain life

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Basal Metabolic Rate

This is the rate that we burn energy when at rest. (Ex:)When semi-starved, people will see their basal metabolic rate drop by about a quarter. And thus, their weight drops then stabilizes at about 75% of their normal weight.

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Environment Eating Cues

Some of us eat even though our hypothalamus is not sending us any cues. If you are motivated to eat by external cues, such as stress, smell, or just the fact that food is in front of you, then you are en external. If you are more motivated to eat by internal cues, empty stomach, feelings of hunger, then you are an internal.

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Hypothalamus

Part of the brain that controls hunger and thirst (receives neural messages from the liver)

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lateral hypothalamus

if stimulated, causes you to feel hunger

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ventromedial hypothalamus

when stimulated, makes you feel full.

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glucostatic theory

- it is considered a central theory of hunger motivation, specifically short-term hunger motivation -idea that our bodies are motivated to keep homeostatic balance in relation of blood glucose levels. - It is theorized that there are 2 areas in the hypothalamus that motivated us to eat or to stop eating thanks to glucoreceptors that determine when blood sugar levels are optimal

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Lipostatic hypothesis

hunger that assumes that there is a "set-point" which defines the baseline weight of a person. -describes the process by which the body achieves this homeostasis -One of the key elements is leptin, a hormone found in bloodstream.

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Refractory period

A period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation

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Estrogen

Any group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body

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Testosterone

A steroid hormone that stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics, produced mainly in the testes

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Psychological, Safety, Love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization

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Self-Actualization

A realization of fulfillment of one's talents and potential

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Incentive theory of motivation

Theory that focuses on motivation, involves concepts of conditioning, homeostasis and positive reinforcement

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Cognitive appraisal theory

Theory that emotions are extracted from our evaluations of events that cause specific reactions in different people

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Extrinsic Motivation

Behavior that is driven by external rewards such as money

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Intrinsic Motivation

Behaviors that are driven by internal rewards

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Over justification Effect

Occurs when an expected external incentive such as money decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task

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Self-Efficacy

One's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task

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Anorexia Nervosa

An emotional disorder with a desire to lose weight by refusing to eat

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Adaptation-level phenomenon

describes the human tendency to judge various stimuli and situations relative to those we have previously experienced.