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Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (54):
1

Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

2

Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.

3

Fetus

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

4

Teratogens

(Literally, "monster maker") agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

5

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features.

6

Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

7

Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

8

Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

9

Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

10

Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

11

Assimilation

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemes.

12

Accommodation

Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

13

Sensorimotor stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

14

Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

15

Preoperational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

16

Conservation

The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

17

Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.

18

Theory of mind

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

19

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors.

20

Concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

21

Formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

22

Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

23

Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to their caregiver and showing distress on separation.

24

Critical period

An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposures to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.

25

Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period.

26

Temperament

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

27

Basic trust

According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

28

Self-concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

29

Gender

The socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female.

30

Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

31

Gender role

A set of expected behaviors for males or for females.

32

Role

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

33

Gender identity

Our sense of being male or female.

34

Social learning theory

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

35

Gender typing

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

36

Transgender

An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex.

37

Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

38

Identity

Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

39

Social identity

The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.

40

Intimacy

In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.

41

Emerging adulthood

For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.

42

X chromosome

The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.

43

Y chromosome

The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

44

Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

45

Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.

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Primary sex characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

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Secondary sex characteristics

Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

48

Menarche

The first menstrual period.

49

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

A life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections.

50

Sexual orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation).

51

Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

52

Cross-sectional study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.

53

Longitudinal study

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.

54

Social clock

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.