Flashcards in Unit 9-Chemistry of the atmosphere Deck (35):
How was the early atmosphere formed?
By the earth's surface being covered in volcanoes that erupted and released lots of gases.
What was the early atmosphere like?
It was mostly carbon dioxide, with virtually no oxygen.
What other planets now are like the earth's early atmosphere.
Mars and Venus.
What did the volcanic activity produce?
Nitrogen, carbon dioxide,water vapour and small amounts of methane and ammonia.
What happened when the water vapour in the earth's early atmosphere condensed?
It formed oceans.
How was a large amount of the Earth's carbon dioxide removed from the Earth's atmosphere?
It dissolved into the oceans.
How was sediment formed on the Earth's seabed?
The carbon dioxide went through a series of reactions to form carbon precipitates which formed them.
What was one of the first organisms to form?
Green plants and algae.
What formed after plants?
What happened to some of the carbon the organisms had used after they had died?
It was trapped in rocks and later formed fossil fuels.
What happens when plants, plankton and marine animals die?
-They are buried by layers of sediment.
-They are compressed and form sedimentary rocks, oil and gas.
-They form fossil fuels which get trapped under rocks.
What is coal?
A sedimentary rock that is made from thick plant deposits.
What is limestone?
A sedimentary rock that is made from calcium carbonate deposits from the shells and skeletons of marine organisms.
What is an advantage of having greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
They make Earth warm enough to support life.
How do greenhouse gases make the Earth warm enough to support life?
They create an insulating layer in the Earth's atmosphere which reflects some of the sun's rays.
Which rays from the sun do they absorb?
The long wavelength radiation.
What is the greenhouse effect?
When the sun's rays are reflected back into earth heating the earth.
What four things impact the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
-Burning fossil fuels.
How does deforestation impact the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
Fewer trees means less Co2 is removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis.
How does burning fossil fuels impact the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
Carbon that was 'locked up' in these fuels is released as Co2.
How does agriculture impact the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
More farm animals means that more methane is produced from their digestive processes.
How does creating waste impact the amount of green house gases in the atmosphere?
More waste from agriculture means that more Co2 and methane is released by the decompostition of waste.
What is climate change?
When the average temperature of the earth's surface has been increasing.
What has been happening to the overall temperature of the earth's surface?
It has been increasing.
What has happened to the evidence about the earth's temperature increasing?
It has been peer reviewed.
What does peer reviewing do?
It makes it more reliable.
What could a change in the earth's temperature lead to ?
-Polar ice caps melting.
-Changes in rainfall patterns.
-Storms may change.
With global warming what would happen to the storms?
The frequency and intensity may change.
With global warming what would happen to the rainfall patterns?
Some places would get too much/too little.
With global warming what would happen to the polar ice caps melting?
It would cause the sea level to rise.
What are carbon footprints?
A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released over the full life cycle of something.
Why can measuring carbon footprints be difficult?
Because there are different factors to consider.
What is the main way to reduce your carbon footprint?
Using renewable energy sources!!!!
What can governments do to reduce their carbon footprint?
-They can put a cap on the amount of emissions that companies produce.
-Tax companies or individuals on the amount of emissions they produce.