Unit 9: Developmental Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9: Developmental Psychology Deck (35):
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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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Accommodation

Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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Sensorimotor stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world most in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but foes not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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Conservation

The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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Concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normal beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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Critical period

An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period

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Temperament

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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Identity

Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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Social identity

The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

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Intimacy

In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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Emerging adulthood

For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gal between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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Fetus

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to brith

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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Longitudinal study

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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Cross-sectional study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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Gender identity

Our sense of being male or female

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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Fetal alcohol syndrome

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, our-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features

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Menarche

The first menstrual period

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Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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Gender

The socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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Teratogens

Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm