Flashcards in Unit 9- Developmental Psychology (7-9%) Deck (82):
Stability vs. Change debate
The question of Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
The Critical period
optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
is a society which is characterized by individualism, not collectivism.
emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires
The Fetal Stage
development from embryo to fetus, the embryo changes to a recognizable human being and develops all the basic outlines of its organs and is then called a fetus.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking.
Baby reacts to something pressing on its palm by trying to grasp it
an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment
big toe remains extended or extends itself when the sole of the foot is stimulated, abnormal except in young infants.
infantile reflex normally present in all infants/newborns up to 4 or 5 months of age as a response to a sudden loss of support, when the infant feels as if it is falling
The baby sucks when area around mouth is touched
person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Babies are cheerful, relaxed, and predictable in feeding and sleeping
Nature vs. Nurture debate
The controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience.
developmental psychology; placed human infants into a "strange situation" in order to examine attachment to parents
a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver
characterized by complete dependence on a caregiver and extreme reluctance to explore one's environment; the result of unresponsive parenting
children that seek little contact with their mothers and are often not distressed when she leaves
her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian)
parents that impose rules and expect obedience; the strict parents
parents that are both demanding and responsive; they negotiate and allow flexibility; the typical/sensible parents
parents that submit to the child's desires; they make few demands and use little punishment
developmental psychology; contributions: 5 stages the terminally ill go through when facing death
Stages of Death and Dying
death, anger/resentment, bargaining with God, depression, acceptance (DABDA)
Kolberg’s Preconventional Morality
before age 9; self interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards
Kolberg’s Conventional Morality
early adolescence; uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order
Kolberg’s Postconventional Morality
adolescence and beyond; actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles
Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development
cognition; Kolberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual, moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles
psychological sense of maleness and femaleness
the acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role
belief that children form mental representations or schemas of masculinity and feminity, which they then use as a basis for organizing their behavior and evaluating their self-worth
Characteristic of children. They withdraw from or are slow to adapt to new situations
Slow to warm up temperament
Child that has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, shows low adaptability, and displays a low intensity of mood.
believed that as children construct their understandings while interacting with the world, they experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next.
We interpret new experiences into terms of our current understanding (schemas)
Altering the concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. Done through assimilation and accommodation.
Adjusting or schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences.
Piaget's sensorimotor stage
from birth to nearly age 2, babies take in the world through their senses and actions—through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping.
the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
Piaget's pre-operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Piaget's concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development(from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Gender-role identification that characterizes people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits
Primary Sex Characteristics
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
The first menstrual period
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development
Theory that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages, during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure-sensitive areas of the body, called erogenous zones
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
(0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, chewing
(18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
(3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
(6 to puberty) Dormant sexual feelings
(Puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
The response where the baby turns toward anything touching his/her cheek, also called the rooting reflex.
Reversibility of thought
the ability to recognize that numbers or objects can be changed and returned to their original condition.
Vygotsky's Theory of Development
Promotes context in which students are actively involved in learning.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The difference between what the learner can do with help and what he/she can do without help.
Zone of ZPD in which a task is too great for the learner, so it is compared to something they already know and then broken down into smaller, more manageable parts.
Ability to solve problems and think logically.
Independent of acquired knowledge.
Ability to use learned knowledge and experience.
Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Trust vs. Mistrust
1st year of life.
Infant fears the world.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Between 18 months and 3
Child becomes independent-wandering away from it's mother
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Transition from adolescence to adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
We begin to share ourselves more intimately with others.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Begin career and family. Look at big picture.
Integrity vs. Despair
Contemplate life accomplishments
Harlow's attachment theory
Babies become attached to their mothers because they care for them.
Monkeys separated from their mothers at birth suffered severe mental distress. They chose the soft, stuffed animal monkey over the hard, wire monkey with food.
Discovered imprinting in geese
(Birds that leave their nest early bond instinctively with the first moving object they see.)
Theory that an infant needs to bond with at least one primary caregiver for the child's success for the child's social and emotional development.
Developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with the Strange Situation Design (relationship between caregiver and child) as well as her work in the development of attachment theory.
the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
Piaget's formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development(normally beginning at about age twelve) during which people begin to think logically about abstract events.
A problem solving approach that explores several different alternative solutions in a parallel to determine which approach best solves a problem.
awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes.