Unit 9- Developmental Psychology (7-9%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9- Developmental Psychology (7-9%) Deck (82):
1

Stability vs. Change debate

The question of Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?

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Maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

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The Critical period

optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.

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Individualist Culture

is a society which is characterized by individualism, not collectivism.

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Collectivist Culture

emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires

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The Fetal Stage

development from embryo to fetus, the embryo changes to a recognizable human being and develops all the basic outlines of its organs and is then called a fetus.

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Teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal Alcohol syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking.

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Palmar/grasping reflex

Baby reacts to something pressing on its palm by trying to grasp it

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Orienting reflex

an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment

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Babinski reflex

big toe remains extended or extends itself when the sole of the foot is stimulated, abnormal except in young infants.

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Moro reflex

infantile reflex normally present in all infants/newborns up to 4 or 5 months of age as a response to a sudden loss of support, when the infant feels as if it is falling

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Sucking reflex

The baby sucks when area around mouth is touched

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Temperament

person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

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Easy temperament

Babies are cheerful, relaxed, and predictable in feeding and sleeping

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Nature vs. Nurture debate

The controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience.

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Mary Ainsworth

developmental psychology; placed human infants into a "strange situation" in order to examine attachment to parents

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Secure Attachment

a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver

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Insecure Attachment

characterized by complete dependence on a caregiver and extreme reluctance to explore one's environment; the result of unresponsive parenting

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Avoidant Attachment

children that seek little contact with their mothers and are often not distressed when she leaves

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Diana Baumrind

her theory of parenting styles had three main types (permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian)

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Authoritarian Parenting

parents that impose rules and expect obedience; the strict parents

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Authoritative Parenting

parents that are both demanding and responsive; they negotiate and allow flexibility; the typical/sensible parents

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Permissive Parenting

parents that submit to the child's desires; they make few demands and use little punishment

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Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

developmental psychology; contributions: 5 stages the terminally ill go through when facing death

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Stages of Death and Dying

death, anger/resentment, bargaining with God, depression, acceptance (DABDA)

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Kolberg’s Preconventional Morality

before age 9; self interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

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Kolberg’s Conventional Morality

early adolescence; uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order

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Kolberg’s Postconventional Morality

adolescence and beyond; actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles

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Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development

cognition; Kolberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual, moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles

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Gender Identity

psychological sense of maleness and femaleness

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Gender Typing

the acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role

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Gender Schema

belief that children form mental representations or schemas of masculinity and feminity, which they then use as a basis for organizing their behavior and evaluating their self-worth

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Difficult Temperament

Characteristic of children. They withdraw from or are slow to adapt to new situations

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Slow to warm up temperament

Child that has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, shows low adaptability, and displays a low intensity of mood.

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Jean Piaget

believed that as children construct their understandings while interacting with the world, they experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next.

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Assimilation

We interpret new experiences into terms of our current understanding (schemas)

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Schema adjustment

Altering the concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. Done through assimilation and accommodation.

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Accommodation

Adjusting or schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences.

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Piaget's sensorimotor stage

from birth to nearly age 2, babies take in the world through their senses and actions—through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping.

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Object permanence

the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived

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Piaget's pre-operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

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Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.

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Piaget's concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development(from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

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Androgyny

Gender-role identification that characterizes people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits

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Primary Sex Characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary Sex Characteristics

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

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Menarche

The first menstrual period

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Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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Social Clock

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development

Theory that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages, during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure-sensitive areas of the body, called erogenous zones

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Fixation

According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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Oral Stage

(0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, chewing

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Anal Stage

(18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control

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Phallic Stage

(3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings

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Latency Stage

(6 to puberty) Dormant sexual feelings

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Genital Stage

(Puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests

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Oedipus Complex

According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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Head-turning reflex

The response where the baby turns toward anything touching his/her cheek, also called the rooting reflex.

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Reversibility of thought

the ability to recognize that numbers or objects can be changed and returned to their original condition.

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Vygotsky's Theory of Development

Promotes context in which students are actively involved in learning.

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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

The difference between what the learner can do with help and what he/she can do without help.

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Scaffolding

Zone of ZPD in which a task is too great for the learner, so it is compared to something they already know and then broken down into smaller, more manageable parts.

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Fluid knowledge

Ability to solve problems and think logically.
Independent of acquired knowledge.

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Crystallized Intelligence

Ability to use learned knowledge and experience.

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Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair

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Trust vs. Mistrust

1st year of life.
Infant fears the world.

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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Between 18 months and 3
Child becomes independent-wandering away from it's mother

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Identity vs. Role Confusion

12-18yrs
Transition from adolescence to adulthood

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Intimacy vs. Isolation

18-40 yrs
We begin to share ourselves more intimately with others.

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Generativity vs. Stagnation

40-65 yrs
Begin career and family. Look at big picture.

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Integrity vs. Despair

65+ yrs
Contemplate life accomplishments

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Harlow's attachment theory

Babies become attached to their mothers because they care for them.

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Contact Comfort

Monkeys separated from their mothers at birth suffered severe mental distress. They chose the soft, stuffed animal monkey over the hard, wire monkey with food.

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Konrad Lorenz

Discovered imprinting in geese
(Birds that leave their nest early bond instinctively with the first moving object they see.)

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Attachment theory

Theory that an infant needs to bond with at least one primary caregiver for the child's success for the child's social and emotional development.

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Mary Ainsworth

Developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with the Strange Situation Design (relationship between caregiver and child) as well as her work in the development of attachment theory.

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Conservation

the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape

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Piaget's formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development(normally beginning at about age twelve) during which people begin to think logically about abstract events.

80

Hypothetical reasoning

A problem solving approach that explores several different alternative solutions in a parallel to determine which approach best solves a problem.

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Metacognition

awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes.

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Theory of mind

People's own ideas about their own and other's mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behavior these might predict.