Unit 9 - Digestive System Key Terms Flashcards Preview

2020-2021 Medical Terminology > Unit 9 - Digestive System Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 9 - Digestive System Key Terms Deck (20)
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1

oral cavity

the mouth

2

pharynx

throat

3

esophagus

10 inch long tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach, takes about 10 seconds for swallowed food to reach the stomach

4

stomach

acts as a bag to collect and churn food

5

small intestine

major site of digestion and absorption of nutrients from food, average of 20 feet long

6

colon

large intestine, fluid that remains after the small intestine mostly gets reabsorbed into the body

7

palate

roof of the oral cavity

8

epiglottis

cartilaginous flap that folds down to cover the larynx and trachea so food is prevented from entering the respiratory tract.

9

peristalsis

wavelike muscular contractions

10

chyme

mixture of food and other digestive juices

11

lower esophageal sphincter

keeps the food from flowing back into the esophagus

12

pyloric sphincter

regulates the passage of food into the small intestine

13

three sections of the small intestine in order

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

14

cecum

pouch or saclike area in the first 2-3 inches at the beginning of the colon

15

large intestine sections in order

ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon

16

salivary glands

produces saliva which contains the digestive enzyme amylase that begins the digestion of carbohydrates

17

liver

processes nutrients absorbed by the small intestine, detoxifies harmful substances, produces bile which helps break up fat. This is the only organ that can regenerate itself.

18

gallbladder

bile produced by the liver is stored here

19

pancreas

buffers neutralize the chyme that just left the stomach, pancreatic enzymes chemically digest fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.

20

feces

solid waste