Unit D: Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit D: Chapter 8 Deck (39):
1

Tissues are..

groups of cells that work to carry out a function

2

4 Types of Tissues

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Nerve
4. Muscle

3

Epithelial Tissue

- protects organs
- lines inside body and covers surface of body (eg.skin)

4

Connective Tissue

- provides support
- holds body parts together

5

Muscle Tissue

- contains contractile fibres made of proteins

6

Nerve Tissue

- conducts electrical impulses
- communicates with internal & external environment

7

Organs are..

groups of tissues that perform a function

8

Systems are..

groups of organs working together

9

5 Types of Systems

1. Digestive
2. Circulatory
3. Respiratory
4. Lymphatic
5. Excretory

10

What are nutrients needed for? Name example.

-to fight infections
-cell growth
-reduction and repair

eg. vitamins, essential nutrients, minerals

11

Vitamins

-are organic molecules needed in small amounts
-13 essential vitamins
-can be: water soluble (e.g vitamins C)
or fat soluble that act as co enzymes & antioxidants (eg. vitamin A, D, E, or K)

12

Minerals

-are inorganic molecules needed small amounts (eg. calcium)
-used in: bone/teeth formation, enzyme cofactors, acid-base balance

13

Essential Nutrients

-are critical for survival
-3 types: carbohydrates, lipids, & proteins

14

Carbohydrates

-provide energy, storage & structure
-largest component in most Western diets (found in corn, bread, fruits)
-produced by photosynthesis

15

Chemistry of Carbohydrates

-made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (C, H, O)
-sugars end is 'ose' (eg. glucose)
-classified by the number of carbons they have
-e.g C6H12O6

16

What are the 3 types of sugars?

1. Monosaccharides
2. Disaccharides
3. Polysaccharides

17

Monosaccharides (sugar)

-contains one sugar unit
-all are isomers of C6H12O6
-eg. fructose, galactose, glucose

18

Disaccharides (sugar)

-made up of 2 monosaccharides bonded together
-formed by dehydration synthesis (dehydrolysis)
-eg. surcose, which is made up of glucose & fructose

19

Polysaccharides (sugar)

-made up of many monosaccharides bonded together
-easily built & broken down

20

What does dehydration synthesis (dehydrolysis) result in?

Results in a water molecule being formed when two monosaccharides join

21

What are the two types of polysaccharides? Describe each.

1. Storage:
-plant storage: can be branched [amylose] or unbranched [amylopectin] (eg. starch)
-animal storage (eg. glycogen, which is stored in the muscles and the liver)

2. Structural
-component of plant cell walls and insect skeletons
-eg. cellulose

22

What are Lipids?

-store double the energy of carbohydrates
-non-polar compounds that are insoluble in water
-composed of glycerol & 3 fatty acids

23

What are the functions of lipids?

-cushions organs
-phospholipid bilayer in cell mebranes
-carriers of vitamins
-makes hormones

24

4 Types of Lipids

1. Triglycerides
2. Waxes
3. Phospholipids
4. Steroids

25

Triglycerides (type of lipid)

-another name for lipids
-two types: saturated & unsaturated

26

Saturated Tricylcerides

-solid at room temp
-comes from animal fats
- has single bonds & saturated with hydrogen

27

Unsaturated Triclycerides

-liquid at room temp
-eg. plant oils, fish oils

28

Waxes (type of lipid)

-stable and insoluble in water
- acts of waterproof coating for plant leaves, bird feathers, & fur

29

Phospholipids (type of lipid)

-structure of cell mebranes

30

Steroids (type of lipid)

-made of cholesterol (HDL & LDL: both used to make steroid hormones like testosterone)

31

HDL Cholesterol

-high-density lipoprotein
-helps remove bad cholesterol from your blood
-protects you from heart attacks & strokes

32

LDL Cholesterol

-low-density lipoprotein
-creates excess build-up overtime which blocks arteries
-too much can lead to heart attack & strokes

33

Liposomes "mimic cells"

-synthetic membranes
-used to safely deliver drugs
- helps reduce unwanted side effects meaning patients would be able to tolerate higher dosage

34

Proteins

-high amount in body
-used to make part of skin
-parts of cells, enzymes, and cardiac muscles (heart)
-used only as a last source of energy
-produced in ribosomes (made of amino acids)

35

Amino Acids

-made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen (C,H,O,N)
-order determines the protein type
-joined together by peptide bonds
-chains of them are called polypeptides
-polypeptide chains fold into proteins

36

Denaturing Proteins

-causes proteins to uncoil (no longer functioning)
- occurs when exposed to: heat (fever, radiation, change in pH
-will revert to original after the physical or chemical factors is removed

37

Coagulation

permanent change in proteins shape

38

Nutrient Deficiency Disorder

-causes a person to have extreme shortage of vital nutrients, vitamins, and minerals
-eg. anorexia nervosa, bulimia

39

Food Preservations (prevent molding)

Dehydration: water is removed
-Preservatives: raising acidity
-Radiation: food is packaged & sealed then exposed to radiation
-Refrigeration: slows bacteria growth to days-weeks
-Freezing: slows bacteria growth weeks- months