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Flashcards in Unit One Deck (51):
1

What are the metals in group one also known as?

The alkali metals

2

What is another name for the elements in group 7?

The halogens

3

Every member of the halogens have something in common what is it?

They are all diatomic

4

Which group of the periodic table are called the noble gases?

Group 0/8

5

Where are protons found and what is their charge and mass?

In the nucleus
Charge of +1
Mass of 1

6

Which particle is found in the nucleus with no charge and a mass of 1?

Neutrons

7

Where are electrons found and what is their mass and charge?

Found on energy levels outside nucleus
Mass of 0
Charge of -1

8

What is the charge of an atoms nucleus?

Positive

9

What is the overall charge of an atom?

Neutral because they have an equal number of protons and electrons

10

Why do elements in the same group have similar chemical properties?

They have the same number of outer electrons

11

What is the mass made up of?

Number of protons and neutrons

12

What is the atomic number?

Number of protons

13

What is an ion?

A charged particle

14

How is an ion formed?

When a neutral atom loses or gains electrons

15

What is the general rule for metal and non-metal ions?

Metals lose electrons to form positive ions
Non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions

16

What are isotopes?

Atoms of the same element which have the same atomic number but different mass number

17

What is relative atomic mass?

The average mass of all isotopes of an element

18

Name the four ways to change the rate of chemical reaction

Change particle size, concentration and temperature
Use a catalyst

19

What happens when you decrease particle size?

Reaction increases

20

What happens if you increase concentration?

Reaction increases

21

What happens when you use a catalyst?

It speeds up a reaction without using itself up

22

What happens when you use a catalyst?

It speeds up a reaction without using itself up

23

How do you calculate average rate?

Change in mass/volume divided by change in time

24

What do the state symbols s, l, aq and g stand for?

S - solid
L - liquid
Aq - aqueous
G - gas

25

How is a solution formed?

When a solute is dissolved in a solvent

26

How do you convert cm into litres?

Divide by 1000

27

What are the melting and boiling points of ionic compounds like?

High because they have strong bonds that need to be broken

28

What are the melting and boiling points of ionic compounds like?

High because they have strong bonds that need to be broken

29

Are ionic compounds soluble?

Most of them are

30

In what conditions can ionic compounds conduct electricity?

When they are molten or solutions

31

Why can ionic compounds only conduct when solutions?

Because the ions are free to move

32

What is electrolysis?

A reaction that breaks down an ionic compound into its elements

33

How do covalent bonds form?

Between non-metal atoms

34

What is a covalent bond?

A shared pair of electrons between atoms

35

Why do atoms share electrons?

To gain a full, stable outer shell

36

What is a molecule?

A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

37

What is a diatomic molecule?

A molecule made up of two atoms

38

How high are the melting and boiling points of covalent molecules?

Low

39

How high are the melting and boiling points of covalent molecules?

Low because they only have weak attractions holding them together

40

How high are the boiling and melting points of covalent networks?

Extremely high because they only contain strong covalent bonds

41

How high are the boiling and melting points of covalent networks?

Extremely high because they only contain strong covalent bonds

42

Are covalent networks soluble?

No because don't contain charged particles that are free to move

43

What ion do acids contain?

Hydrogen H+

44

What ion do alkalis contain?

Hydroxide OH-

45

Can solutions of acids and alkalis conduct electricity?

Yes

46

What is a base?

A substance that can neutralise an acid

47

Name some bases

Metal hydroxides, metal oxides, metal carbonates and ammonia

48

What are spectator ions?

Ions that remain unchanged during a chemical reaction

49

What does it mean when titration results must be concordant?

Volume readings should be within 0.2cm of each other

50

How are insoluble salts made?

By a precipitation reaction

51

What is a precipitation reaction?

Mixing two solutions to form a powdery solid called precipitate (insoluble salt)